Daily Archives: April 10, 2015

American Physical Society: Saying So Does Not Make it So on Climate

Statements by societies such as the American Physical Society (PAS) are written for a purpose… to persuade others to adopt their view of how they see an issue. And in every case the outcome depends upon underlying assumptions as well as who exactly is writing the document. Even when a statement such as the APS statement on climate is attributed to a large group, in reality only one person actually crafts the final statement typically imposing their political spin. Everyone one else goes along with silence being consent. And if a career in science hinges on consent to a statement, low and behold everyone agrees with it.

APS can say what it wants about climate. But saying so does not make it so. And the APS has issued a political statement as discussed here following in the footsteps of the IPCC by failing to recognize the underlying science.

Toxicity of X Material, 1943

Ferry, J.L. The toxicity of X material. 1943 A–1341 DOI: 10.2172/150708

This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

Report is here.

Enteric Fever and Its Treatment

Dave J, Sefton A. Enteric fever and its impact on returning travellers. Int Health. 2015 Mar 24. pii: ihv018.

Enteric fever, a systemic illness, is caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi or S. enterica serovar Paratyphi A, B or C. The organism is transmitted to humans by the faecal oral route and is endemic in countries with poor sanitation and lacking clean drinking water. There are around 27 million individuals infected with S. Typhi worldwide annually. Enteric fever is a particular problem in travellers to endemic areas, especially those visiting friends and relatives. Currently, the two main vaccines recommended for travellers are the Vi polysaccharide vaccine and the oral Ty21a vaccine. These internationally licensed vaccines are safe and effective against S. Typhi. However, there is currently no commercially available vaccine against S. Paratyphi, which is increasingly reported as a cause of enteric fever. Vaccine uptake and taking appropriate precautions are poor in travellers visiting friends and relatives abroad; this problem requires addressing. Ciprofloxacin is no longer recommended for empirical treatment of infection because of increasing reports of resistance, especially from South Asia. Ceftriaxone and azithromycin are currently the most commonly used antimicrobials for empirical treatment of enteric fever but resistance to both these agents is emerging.

Click here for full paper (fee).