Daily Archives: April 22, 2015

China-Led Infrastructure Investment Bank Support Growing

“American diplomats are upset that dozens of countries — including Nepal, Cambodia and Bangladesh — have flocked to join China’s new infrastructure investment bank, a potential rival to the World Bank and other financial institutions backed by the United States.” click here

Diarrhea Prevalence High for Indigenous Children in Brazil

BMC Public Health. 2015 Feb 27;15:191. doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1534-7.
Diarrhea and health inequity among Indigenous children in Brazil: results from the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition.
Escobar AL, Coimbra CE Jr, Welch JR, Horta BL, Santos RV, Cardoso AM.

Background: Globally, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death among children under five. In Brazil, mortality due to diarrhea underwent a significant reduction in recent decades principally due to expansion of the primary healthcare network, use of oral rehydration therapy, reduced child undernutrition, and improved access to safe drinking water. The First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition in Brazil, conducted in 2008-2009, was the first survey based on a nationwide representative sample to study the prevalence of diarrhea and associated factors among Indigenous children in the country.

Methods: The survey assessed the health and nutritional status of Indigenous children < 5 years of age based on a representative sample of major Brazilian geopolitical regions. A stratified probabilistic sampling was carried out for Indigenous villages. Within villages, children < 5 years of age in sampled households were included in the study. Interviews were based on a seven day recall period. Prevalence rates of acute diarrhea were calculated for independent variables and hierarchical multivariable analyses were conducted to assess associations.

Results: Information on diarrhea was obtained for 5,828 children (95.1% of the total sample). The overall prevalence of diarrhea was 23.5%. Regional differences were observed, with the highest rate being in the North (38.1%). Higher risk of diarrhea was observed among younger children and those who had less maternal schooling, lower household socioeconomic status, undernutrition (weight-for-age deficit), presence of another child with diarrhea in the household, and occurrence of upper respiratory infection.

Conclusions: According to results of the First National Survey of Indigenous People’s Health and Nutrition, almost a quarter of Indigenous children throughout the country had diarrhea during the previous week. This prevalence is substantially higher than that documented in 2006 for Brazilian children < 5 years generally (9.4%). Due to its exceedingly multicausal nature, the set of associated variables that remained associated with child diarrhea in the final multivariable model provide an excellent reflection of the diverse social and health inequities faced by Indigenous peoples in contemporary Brazil.

Click here for article (Open Access).

Ms. Hillary Clinton has some ‘splanin to do’

From Amazaon here:

“In 2000, Bill and Hillary Clinton owed millions of dollars in legal debt. Since then, they’ve earned over $130 million. Where did the money come from? Most people assume that the Clintons amassed their wealth through lucrative book deals and high-six figure fees for speaking gigs. Now, Peter Schweizer shows who is really behind those enormous payments.”

Clinton Cash

From the Urban Dictionary here:

“Saying a person or entity “has some ‘splainin’ to do” (in a Cuban accent) is a humorous way of suggesting that they have done something illegal or otherwise embarrassing. The catchphrase dates back to the 50’s “I Love Lucy” show.””


Mvudi River Water Quality, South Africa

Edokpayi JN, Odiyo JO, Msagati TA, Potgieter N. Temporal variations in physico-chemical and microbiological characteristics of mvudi river, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015 Apr 14;12(4):4128-40. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120404128.

Surface water has been a source of domestic water due to shortage of potable water in most rural areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the level of contamination of Mvudi River in South Africa by measuring turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, concentrations of nitrate, fluoride, chloride, and sulphate. E. coli and Enterococci were analysed using membrane filtration technique. Average pH, EC and Turbidity values were in the range of 7.2-7.7, 10.5-16.1 mS/m and 1.3-437.5 NTU, respectively. The mean concentrations of fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate for both the wet and the dry seasons were 0.11 mg/L and 0.27 mg/L, 9.35 mg/L and 14.82 mg/L, 3.25 mg/L and 6.87 mg/L, 3.24 mg/L and 0.70 mg/L, respectively. E. coli and Enterococci counts for both the wet and the dry seasons were 4.81 × 103 (log = 3.68) and 5.22 × 103 (log = 3.72), 3.4 × 103 (log = 3.53) and 1.22 × 103 (log = 3.09), per 100 mL of water, respectively. The count of E. coli for both seasons did not vary significantly (p > 0.05) but Enterococci count varied significantly (p < 0.001). All the physico-chemical parameters obtained were within the recommended guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry of South Africa and the World Health Organization for domestic and recreational water use for both seasons except turbidity and nitrates. The microbiological parameters exceeded the established guidelines. Mvudi River is contaminated with faecal organisms and should not be used for domestic purposes without proper treatment so as to mitigate the threat it poses to public health.

Click here for paper (Open Source).