Daily Archives: April 25, 2015

Reducing Intake of Sugar-Sweetened Beverages in Children and Adults

Vargas-Garcia EJ, El Evans C, Cade JE. Impact of interventions to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake in children and adults: a protocol for a systematic review and meta-analysis. Systematic Reviews. 2015 Feb 21;4(1):17. doi: 10.1186/s13643-015-0008-4.

Background: Sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) have been stressed as relevant targets of public health interventions considering the negative outcomes derived from their excessive intake. Though the evidence from published literature grows to support a cause-and-effect association of SSBs with obesity and other diseases, little is known on the effectiveness that strategies alone or as part of multi-component programmes have had to influence this particular dietary behaviour across all ages. Therefore, this review and meta-analysis aim to evaluate the effect that interventions have had to decrease their consumption or increase water intake in children and adults so as to guide the design of future programmes and inform policy making.

Methods: Included studies in this review will be randomised controlled trials and quasi-experimental interventions (with a control group) that have reported baseline and post-intervention intakes of SSBs or water and that have been published from 1990 in any language. A thorough search will be performed in MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane’s central register of controlled trials, and the Global Health Library. Two independent reviewers will conduct initial screening of potentially included articles and will later extract data to analyse domains of intervention design and delivery (with emphasis on behaviour change techniques used as rationale), as well as results in changes on consumption patterns and behavioural determinants. Internal and external validity of each study will also be appraised. A meta-analysis will be performed if a sufficient number of studies are available, and if not, a narrative review will be conducted instead.

Discussion: The results from this review aim to strengthen public health initiatives tackling obesity through improvements in non-alcoholic drinking patterns. As a subject of growing attention globally, this review will help determine which strategies available are the most effective in different contexts. Knowledge gained from this work will also aid resource allocation in future research and government agendas.

Click here for paper (Open Access).

How do Climate Models Account for Volcanic Eruptions?

I wonder if any warming occurs at the earth’s surface as a result of a volcanic eruption? Like this one in Chile courtesy of Russian Television (RT). Think there is any PM10, PM2.5, CO2 or SO2 being emitted?

video h/t: iceagenow

More on this eruption given by Dr Roy Spencer.

Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Municipal Landfill Leachates, China

Yan H, Cousins IT, Zhang C, Zhou Q. Perfluoroalkyl acids in municipal landfill leachates from China: Occurrence, fate during leachate treatment and potential impact on groundwater. The Science of the Total Environment. 2015 Apr 15;524-525C:23-31. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.03.111.

Raw and treated landfill leachate samples were collected from 5 municipal landfill sites in China to measure the concentrations and contamination profile of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leachate during different steps of treatment. The total concentration of PFAAs (∑PFAAs) ranged from 7280 to 292,000ngL-1 in raw leachate and from 98.4 to 282,000ngL-1 in treated leachate. The dominant compounds measured were PFOA (mean contribution 28.8% and 36.8% in raw and treated leachate, respectively) and PFBS (26.1% and 40.8% in raw and treated leachate, respectively). A calculation of mass flows during the leachate treatment processes showed that the fate of individual PFAAs was substance and treatment-specific. The Chinese national leakage of ∑PFAAs to groundwater from landfill leachate was estimated to be 3110kgyear-1, which is a significant environmental release that is potentially threatening the sustainable use of groundwater as a drinking water source.

Click here for paper (fee).