This article reminds me of fact that we live in a time when people like to feel like they are thinking. Someone else actually does the thinking for them. They just go along because it leaves a good feeling in the room and they love it. But ask them to think about what they are thinking (e.g. presuppositions), then the reaction is very different indeed, usually very hostile (here against Mr. Morano).
But in any case the actual climate at any scale is a dynamic system, always adjusting, always changing. There is no “normal” climate from which it changes into something else. And from Godel’s incompleteness theorems we learn that the whole is greater than the sum of the parts which seriously limits what any mathematical model can tell us about the climate system as a whole.
“Hypomineralization” is a relatively new term which refers to an abnormality in the translucency of tooth enamel (opacity). Dental fluorosis is just one form. (Click here for more.)
Balmer R, Toumba KJ, Munyombwe T, Duggal MS. A comparison of the presentation of molar incisor hypomineralisation in two communities with different fluoride exposure. European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry: Official Journal of the European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry. 2015 Apr 18.
AIM: To compare the clinical presentation of two cohorts of children diagnosed with molar incisor hypomineralisation (MIH) and living in areas of low and high background fluoridation.
METHODS: The study population comprised 12-year-old children participating in the 2008-2009 National Dental Epidemiological Programme in five regions in Northern England. Participating dentists were trained and calibrated in the use of the modified Developmental Defects of Enamel Index. Children were examined at school under direct vision with the aid of a dental mirror. First permanent molars and incisors were recorded for the presence and type of enamel defects greater than 2 mm. A diagnosis of MIH was ascribed to any child with a demarcated defect in any first permanent molar. Risk ratios for the occurrence of demarcated, diffuse and hypoplastic defects were generated for MIH children in the fluoridated and non-fluoridated area.
RESULTS: 3,233 children were examined. The prevalence of MIH in the fluoridated community was 11 % and in the non-fluoridated community was 17.5 %. Incisors in children with MIH were at greater risk of having demarcated defects (risk ratio 4.0, 3.6-4.5) and diffuse defects (risk ratio 2.2, 2.0-2.5). Molars in children with MIH were at greater risk of diffuse defects (risk ratio 4.4, 3.8-5.0). The teeth of children with MIH living in the fluoridated area were at greater risk of demarcated defects for both incisors (risk ratio 1.6, 1.3-2.0) and molars (risk ratio 1.3, 1.2-1.5) relative to the teeth of MIH children living in the non-fluoridated area.
CONCLUSIONS: Children with MIH were at increased risk of both diffuse and demarcated defects in their incisors. Children with MIH living in the fluoridated area were at increased risk of diffuse and demarcated defects relative to MIH children living in the non-fluoridated area.
Click here for paper (Open Access).
Roy W. Spencer, John R. Christy, and William D. Braswell. Version 6.0 of the UAH Temperature Dataset Released: New LT Trend = +0.11 C/decade. 28 April, 2015
Version 6 of the UAH MSU/AMSU global satellite temperature dataset is by far the most extensive revision of the procedures and computer code we have ever produced in over 25 years of global temperature monitoring. The two most significant changes from an end-user perspective are (1) a decrease in the global-average lower tropospheric (LT) temperature trend from +0.140 C/decade to +0.114 C/decade (Dec. ’78 through Mar. ’15); and (2) the geographic distribution of the LT trends, including higher spatial resolution. We describe the major changes in processing strategy, including a new method for monthly gridpoint averaging; a new multi-channel (rather than multi-angle) method for computing the lower tropospheric (LT) temperature product; and a new empirical method for diurnal drift correction. We also show results for the mid-troposphere (“MT”, from MSU2/AMSU5), tropopause (“TP”, from MSU3/AMSU7), and lower stratosphere (“LS”, from MSU4/AMSU9). The 0.026 C/decade reduction in the global LT trend is due to lesser sensitivity of the new LT to land surface skin temperature (est. 0.010 C/decade), with the remainder of the reduction (0.016 C/decade) due to the new diurnal drift adjustment, the more robust method of LT calculation, and other changes in processing procedures.