Daily Archives: June 5, 2015

Science Does Not “Say” Anything About Extreme Weather

A logical fallacy. Intentionally misleading? We continue to see quotes (e.g. here) from “experts” that “science says”.

The reality? “Science” says nothing. “Scientists” say something. And the something scientists say is driven primarily by their underlying assumptions (presuppositions). Looking at exactly the same measurements and models, two scientists can easily draw the opposite conclusions if their presuppositional starting points differ.

The popular press and political activist scientists apparently pay no attention to the flaws evident in environmental studies and claims. Perhaps a short list of typical errors might help. 

 

NOAA Manipulated Computer Code to Change Temperature History?

With information such as this post at the NoTricksZone becoming public, I must ask the obvious question.  I  suspect that with billions of dollars in government money at stake the temptation to manipulate data to get the desired answer is just too great.

“Last April, in a short, narrated YouTube series titled, Black Swan Climate Theory [1] (BSCT) irrefutable evidence was presented that sometime between 2011 and 2015 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) had on two occasions rewritten its own version of Maine’s statewide climate history. The gist of my findings was that I believe I caught NOAA purposefully using computer code (algorithms [2]) to lower historic temperatures to promote present day temperatures as the warmest on record. The image above is from the new YouTube series posted after NOAA’s acknowledgement that they had indeed made improvements to Maine’s climate history.” full post is here .

High-Fluoride in Xiji County, Ningxia Province, China

Wei C, Guo H, Zhang D, Wu Y, Han S, An Y, Zhang F. Occurrence and hydrogeochemical characteristics of high-fluoride groundwater in Xiji County, southern part of Ningxia Province, China. Environ Geochem Health. 2015 May 20.

High-F- groundwater is widely distributed in Xiji County, which endangers the safety of drinking water. In order to evaluate the key factors controlling the origin and geochemical mechanisms of F- enrichment in groundwater at Xiji County, one hundred and five groundwater samples and sixty-two sediment samples were collected. Fluoride concentration in the groundwater samples ranged from 0.2 to 3.01 mg/L (mean 1.13 mg/L), with 17 % exceeding the WHO drinking water guideline value of 1.5 mg/L and 48 % exceeding the Chinese drinking water guideline value of 1.0 mg/L. High-F- groundwaters were characterized by hydrochemical types of Na-HCO3 and Na-SO4·Cl, which were found in Quaternary sediment aquifer and in Tertiary clastic aquifer, respectively. Conditions favorable for F- enrichment in groundwater included weakly alkaline pH (7.2-8.9), low concentration of Ca2+, and high concentrations of HCO3 – and Na+. Calcite and fluorite were the main minerals controlling F- concentration in groundwaters. The hydrolysis of F-bearing minerals in aquifer sediments was the more important process for F- release in Tertiary clastic aquifer, which was facilitated by long residence time of groundwater, in comparison with Quaternary sediment aquifer. Cation exchange would also play important roles, which removed Ca2+ and Mg2+ and led to more free mobility of F- in groundwater and permitted dissolution of fluorite, especially in Tertiary clastic aquifer. However, evapotranspiration and competing adsorption of B and HCO3 – were the more important processes for F- enrichment in Quaternary groundwater. Groundwater in Lower Cretaceous aquifer had relatively low F- concentration, which was considered to be the potential drinking water resource.

Click here for full paper (fee).