Daily Archives: June 11, 2015

Climate Sensitivity to CO2 is Negligible

Martin Hertzberg Climate Change Recosidered II – Physical Science Energy and Environment, Volume 26, No. 3, 547-553.

“While the NIPCC concedes that CO2 is a “mild greenhouse gas” that might cause some mild heating, such heating far from representing a “climate crisis” would actually be beneficial to mankind. The Global Climate Models produced by the IPCC predicted drastic warming up to 6 C for decades to come. Those predictions have been falsified by the data. In fact, during the past 17 years, even as atmospheric CO2 concentrations have increased by 8%, the Earth’s average temperature has not increased. While prior to 1995 there was a parallelism between the CO2 increase and temperature rise, such a parallelism does not prove causation, and in fact that parallelism has ceased since the mid-1990’s. In geologic time, Earth’s temperature has oscillated naturally between +4C and -6C relative to current values. Those fluctuations are driven by glacial coolings and interglacial warmings caused mainly by changes in the ellipticity of the Earth’s orbit. The Earth’s overall warming since 1860 corresponds to its recovery from the Little Ice Age as modulated by ocean-atmosphere oscillations and variations in solar activity.” click here to read the full paper. 

International Climate Change Conference – 10

http://climateconference.heartland.org/

 

Effects of Assimilable Organic Carbon and Free Chlorine on Bacterial Growth

Liu X, Wang J, Liu T, Kong W, He X, Jin Y, Zhang B. Effects of assimilable organic carbon and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 2;10(6):e0128825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0128825.

Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) is one of the most important factors affecting the re-growth of microorganisms in drinking water. High AOC concentrations result in biological instability, but disinfection kills microbes to ensure the safety of drinking water. Free chlorine is an important oxidizing agent used during the disinfection process. Therefore, we explored the combined effects of AOC and free chlorine on bacterial growth in drinking water using flow cytometry (FCM). The initial AOC concentration was 168 μg.L-1 in all water samples. Without free chlorine, the concentrations of intact bacteria increased but the level of AOC decreased. The addition of sodium hypochlorite caused an increase and fluctuation in AOC due to the oxidation of organic carbon. The concentrations of intact bacteria decreased from 1.1×105 cells.mL-1 to 2.6×104 cells.mL-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.6 mg.L-1 to 4.8×104 cells.mL-1 at an initial free chlorine dose of 0.3 mg.L-1 due to free chlorine originating from sodium hypochlorite. Additionally, free chlorine might be more obviously affected AOC concentrations than microbial growth did. These results suggested that AOC and free chlorine might have combined effects on microbial growth. In this study, our results showed concentrations determined by FCM were higher than those by HPC, which indicated that some E. coli detected by FCM might not be detected using HPC in drinking water. The level of free chlorine might restrain the consumption of AOC by inhibiting the growth of E. coli; on the other hand, chlorination might increase the level of AOC, thereby increase the potential for microbial growth in the drinking water network.