Daily Archives: June 30, 2015

Renewable Energies Cannot do the Job, Costs Beyond Astronomical

Bill Gates, the richest person in the world, acknowledges that renewable energies are not a viable solution for reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide. Gates now firmly asserts that renewable energy technology as it now is has no chance of powering a reasonably numerous and well-off human race.  Click here for news article.

Vatican climate declaration reflects group-think, not science-based reasoning

For science to progress in any field certain dynamics are necessary. First, productive and spirited discussions are needed between scientists with different points of view. If only one point of view is allowed as a result of political maneuvering and exclusion then the resulting conclusions will be skewed.

Second, a distinction must be made between observable evidence and the philosophy, metaphysics, or underlying presumptions of those involved in the discussion. Presumptions will drive certain conclusions. This must be recognized and presumptions examined as well. If presumptions are unreliable or arbitrary then any conclusions drawn are also arbitrary and therefore not very useful.

(In the climate discussions to date some scientists only want to tell us what they think and believe and advocate what should be done, but they are not willing to examine the epistemology or underlying basis for those thoughts and beliefs. Are the presumptions and assumptions made justified and reliable?)

Lastly, there must be an exchange of ideas with a goal of understanding and examining viewpoints that differ with mutual respect between the people participating. For example, some scientists believe in God and believe the Bible (like Galileo, Kepler, and many others) and some scientists do not. Having no belief in God is no more a guarantee of scientific credibility and orthodoxy than is having such a belief. A meaningful exchange of ideas between such parties is beneficial and necessary for science to progress.

From the information now emerging it is apparent that none of the above three dynamics occurred during the preparation of the pontifical academies joint declaration (i.e., click here)

Certainly, it is become more apparent that the Vatican should have allowed participation and consideration of other perspectives (e.g. click here).

Microcystins and Cylindrospermopsin Adsorb to Sediments

Maghsoudi E, Prévost M, Vo Duy S, Sauvé S, Dorner S. Adsorption characteristics of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin on sediment: Implications for toxin monitoring and drinking water treatment. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2015 Jun 16. pii: S0041-0101(15)00154-3. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.06.007.

Adsorption of mixtures of cyanotoxins onto sediment as a dominant mechanism in the elimination of cyanotoxins from the aqueous phase has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorption and desorption behavior of six microcystins including microcystin (MC)-LR, RR, YR, LY, LW and LF and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) on natural sediment. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could be fitted for MC-LR, RR, YR and CYN. Sorption kinetics showed immediate rapid adsorption for all cyanotoxins: CYN, MCLW and MCLF were adsorbed 72.6%, 56.7% and 55.3% respectively within 2 h. Results of desorption experiments demonstrated that less than 9% of cyanotoxins desorbed from sediment within 96 h. Adsorption of cyanotoxins onto three fractionated sediments particles, clay-silt (<75 μm), find sand (75-315 μm) and coarse sand (315-2000 μm) demonstrated that adsorption capacity of coarse sand fraction for all the tested cyanotoxins was less than 4% of the clay-silt fraction. Results of this study revealed that there is a potential for cyanotoxins to accumulate in the sediments of lakes, as well as in drinking water treatment plants. Monitoring programs must consider cyanotoxins in the particulate phase to avoid largely underestimating toxin concentrations following their release from blooms.