Stéphanie Guilherme, Manuel J. Rodriguez. Occurrence of regulated and non-regulated disinfection by-products in small drinking water systems. Chemosphere Volume 117, December 2014, Pages 425–432
The occurrence of regulated and non-regulated disinfection by-products (DBPs) was investigated in the drinking water of small systems in two provinces in Canada, Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) and Quebec (QC), through an intensive sampling program. Sixteen DBPs were studied: four trihalomethanes (THMs), five haloacetic acids (HAAs), four haloacetonitriles (HANs), one halonitromethane, chloropikrin (CPK) and two haloketones (HKs). Average measured concentrations of these compounds were much higher than those reported in the literature for medium and large systems. The measured average value for THMs was 75 μg L−1 (Stdv = 69 μg L−1); HAAs, 77 μg L−1 (Stdv = 75 μg L−1); HANs, 2.5 μg L−1 (Stdv = 1.8 μg L−1); CPK, 0.4 μg L−1 (Stdv = 0.3 μg L−1) and HKs, 6.0 μg L−1 (Stdv = 4.5 μg L−1). The gap (some 10 times difference) between the average levels of regulated DBPs (THMs, HAAs) and non-regulated DBPs (HANs, CPK and HKs) is comparable to that observed in large systems where the occurrence of the same compounds has been reported. Generally, investigated DBPs followed a comparable seasonal evolution during the year: they decreased between the fall and winter and then increased to eventually reach a maximum in late summer. This trend was less observable in NL than in QC. However, observed seasonal fluctuations of DBPs were less considerable than those observed in medium and large systems located in similar temperate environments reported in the literature. Spatial variations from the plant to the extremities were high and comparable to those observed in large systems, which is surprising, considering the smaller size of distribution networks supplying small communities. Generally speaking, the results support the premise that problems associated with implementing treatment that removes DBP precursors in water submitted to chlorination can increase population exposure to these contaminants in small systems.
“Calling abortion in America “racist genocide,” Childress said that since 1973, after the Supreme Court legalized abortion on demand, 13 million African-American babies have been put to death through abortion. He finds it especially “hypocritical” that the nation’s first black president provides funding for abortion giant Planned Parenthood.” News article is here.
Dongliang He, Xiaolei Ye, Yonghua Xiao, Nana Zhao, Jia Long, Piwei Zhang, Ying Fan, Shibin Ding, Xin Jin, Chong Tian, Shunqing Xu, Chenjiang Ying. Dietary exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals in metropolitan population from China: A risk assessment based on probabilistic approach. Chemosphere Volume 139, November 2015, Pages 2–8
The intake of contaminated foods is an important exposure pathway for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, data on the occurrence of EDCs in foodstuffs are sporadic and the resultant risk of co-exposure is rarely concerned. In this study, 450 food samples representing 7 food categories (mainly raw and fresh food), collected from three geographic cities in China, were analyzed for eight EDCs using high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS/MS). Besides estrone (E1), other EDCs including diethylstilbestrol (DES), nonylphenol (NP), bisphenol A (BPA), octylphenol (OP), 17β-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), and estriol (E3) were ubiquitous in food. Dose-dependent relationships were found between NP and EE2 (r = 0.196, p < 0.05), BPA (r = 0.391, p < 0.05). Moreover, there existed a correspondence between EDCs congener and food category. Based on the obtained database of EDCs concentration combined with local food consumption, dietary EDCs exposure was estimated using the Monte Carlo Risk Assessment (MCRA) system. The 50th and 95th percentile exposure of any EDCs isomer were far below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) value identically. However, the sum of 17β-estradiol equivalents (∑EEQs) exposure in population was considerably larger than the value of exposure to E2, which implied the underlying resultant risk of multiple EDCs in food should be concern. In conclusion, co-exposure via food consumption should be considered rather than individual EDCs during health risk evaluation.