Bixiong Ye, Yuansheng Chen, Yonghua Li, Hairong Li, Linsheng Yang and Wuyi Wang. Risk assessment and water safety plan: case study in Beijing, China. Journal of Water and Health Vol 13 No 2 pp 510–521 doi:10.2166/wh.2014.101
Two typical rural water utilities in Beijing, China were chosen to describe the principles and applications of water safety plans (WSP), to provide a methodological guide for the actual application and improve the quality of rural drinking water quality, and to establish an appropriate method for WSP applied in rural water supply. Hazards and hazardous events were identified and risk assessment was conducted for rural water supply systems. A total of 13 and 12 operational limits were defined for two utilities, respectively. The main risk factors that affect the water safety were identified in water sources, water processes, water disinfection systems and water utility management. The main control measures were strengthening the water source protection, monitoring the water treatment processes, establishing emergency mechanisms, improving chemical input and operating system management. WSP can be feasibly applied to the management of a rural water supply.
“During a July 16 nighttime appearance of Al Jazeera’s America Tonight, Colonel Gary Anderson, USMC (Ret.), said the Chattanooga attack is a reminder that Americans need to be armed because an armed citizenry “is probably the only way you can truly deter the kinds of things that we saw in the church in Charleston and that we saw… in Chattanooga.” News article is here.
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Mohammad Mahmudur Rahman, Zhaomin Dong, Ravi Naidu. Concentrations of arsenic and other elements in groundwater of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: Potential cancer risk. Chemosphere. Volume 139, November 2015, Pages 54–64.
We investigated the concentrations of 23 elements in groundwater from arsenic (As) contaminated areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India to determine the potential human exposure to metals and metalloids. Elevated concentrations of As was found in all five study areas that exceeded the World Health Organization (WHO) guideline value of 10 μg/L. The mean As concentrations in groundwater of Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur were 297 μg/L, 262 μg/L, 115 μg/L, 161 μg/L and 349 μg/L, respectively. Elevated concentrations of Mn were also detected in all areas with mean concentrations were 139 μg/L, 807 μg/L, 341 μg/L, 579 μg/L and 584 μg/L for Noakhali, Jalangi and Domkal, Dasdia Nonaghata, Deganga and Baruipur, respectively. Daily As intakes from drinking water for adults and the potential cancer risk for all areas was also estimated. Results suggest that mitigation activities such as water treatment should not only be focused on As but must also consider other elements including Mn, B and Ba. The groundwater used for public drinking purposes needs to be tested periodically for As and other elements to ensure the quality of drinking water is within the prescribed national guidelines.