Daily Archives: July 24, 2015

Do Obama Administration Oath of Allegiance Changes Threaten Security?

Yes, without a doubt. US citizen freedoms are not free and those who want to immigrate here better be ready to defend the US and the Constitution or both will be history. 

“Tuesday, U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services announced it was altering the eligibility requirements for modifications to the Oath of Allegiance. Namely, while immigrants seeking to become citizens are usually required to declare they will “bear arms on behalf of the United States” and “perform noncombatant service in the Armed Forces of the United States,” the new guidance now allows for not only those with religious objections but also people with a strongly held beliefs to omit those portions.” Click here for full article.

Removal of Halobenzoquinones During Drinking Water Treatment

Wang W, Qian Y, Jmaiff L, Krasner SW, Hrudey SE, Li XF. Precursors of Halobenzoquinones and Their Removal during Drinking Water Treatment Processes. Environmental Science and Technology. 2015 Jul 21.

Halobenzoquinones (HBQs) widely occur in drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) effluents; however, HBQ precursors and their removal by treatments remain unclear. Thus, we have investigated HBQ precursors in plant influents and their removal by each treatment before chlorination in nine DWTPs. The levels of HBQ precursors were determined using formation potential (FP) tests for 2,6-dichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (DCBQ), 2,3,6-trichloro-1,4-benzoquinone (TCBQ), 2,6-dichloro-3-methyl-1,4-benzoquinone (DCMBQ), and 2,6-dibromo-1,4-benzoquinone (DBBQ). HBQ precursors were present in all plant influents. DCBQ precursors were the most abundant (DCBQ FP up to 205 ng/L). Coagulation removed dissolved organic carbon (DOC) (up to 56%) and HBQ precursors (up to 39% for DCBQ). The DOC removal was significantly greater than the removal of HBQ FP, suggesting that organic matter removed by coagulation had a high proportion of non-HBQ-precursor material. Granular activated carbon (GAC) decreased HBQ FPs by 10-20%, where DOC removal was only 0.2-4.7%, suggesting that the GAC was not in the adsorption mode and biodegradation of HBQ precursors may have been occurring. Ozonation destroyed/transformed HBQ FPs by 10-30%, whereas anthracite/sand filtration and UV irradiation appeared to have no impact. The results demonstrated that the combined treatments did not substantially reduce HBQ precursor levels in water.

Mr. Louie Gohmert Gets it Right on Iran “Deal”

“Rep. Louie Gohmert (R-TX) had about the strongest rebuke of any member of Congress when it comes to President Barack Obama’s nuclear arms deal with Iran on the House floor on Wednesday evening. Speaking for nearly 30 minutes, Gohmert deconstructed the deal point-by-point.” click here

Is Clostridium perfringens Endotoxin Anti-Tumorigenic?

This study provides a lot of food for thought.

  • A “tap water” control was used having a chlorine concentration of 0.7 mg/L. Chlorinated water at 10 mg/L administered to mice did not significantly affect gut microbial communities. [The current US maximum residual disinfectant level (MRDL) for chlorine in tap water is 4 mg/L.]
  • Carcinogenesis in the colon was altered by chlorinated water consumption, suggesting that this effect should be verified by additional studies.
  • The mechanism by which chlorinated water altered colon carcinogenesis in these mice is not known. Is it chemical-related? Microbial related? Both? Understanding the mechanism is necessary in order to assess the applicability to human risk assessment and determine the most effective intervention. Discontinuing the addition of chlorine for drinking water disinfection is not a responsible action given the realities of microbial pathogen risks in undisinfected tap water.
  • Is C. perfringens endotoxin anti-tumorigenic?  This strikes me as a very important question. Little is known about the role of microorganisms and viruses in carcinogenesis.

Sasada T, Hinoi T, Saito Y, Adachi T, Takakura Y, Kawaguchi Y, Sotomaru Y, Sentani K, Oue N, Yasui W, Ohdan H. Chlorinated Water Modulates the Development of Colorectal Tumors with Chromosomal Instability and Gut Microbiota in Apc-Deficient Mice. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 17;10(7):e0132435. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0132435.

The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to a variety of chemicals and commensal bacteria. Recent studies have shown that changes in gut microbial populations caused by chlorine or other chemicals in the drinking water influence the development of human colorectal cancer, although the mechanism of tumorigenesis in the gut epithelium is obfuscated by the diversity of microflora and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. In this regard, mouse models that recapitulate human colorectal cancer are an invaluable tool. In this study, we used two conditional adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) knockout mouse models to investigate the effect of chlorinated water on tumorigenesis in the digestive tract. Mice with colon-specific carcinoma-caused by either chromosomal (CDX2P 9.5-NLS Cre;Apc+/flox, abbreviated to CPC;Apc) or microsatellite (CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apcflox/flox and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apcflox/flox) instability, respectively-were administered chlorinated (10.0 mg/L chlorine) or tap (0.7 mg/L chlorine) water and evaluated for colon polyp formation. In CPC;Apc mice given chlorinated drinking water, tumors tended to develop in the colon, whereas in those that drank tap water, tumors were mostly observed in the small intestine. There was no difference in the rate of tumor formation of CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apcflox/flox and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apcflox/flox mice consuming chlorinated as compared to tap water, suggesting that microsatellite instability in the Apc gene does not significantly affect tumorigenesis. Chlorinated water altered the enteric environment by reducing the fecal populations of the obligatory anaerobes Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile, as well as species belonging to the Atopobium cluster, including Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus sp., which was associated with colon tumorigenesis in CPC;Apc mice. These results suggest that differences in tumorigenesis among CPC;Apc mice consuming chlorinated versus tap water may be due to differences in gastrointestinal commensal populations.