P. Vishwanath Kumara, Anil Kumarb, Om Prakashc, Ajay Kumar Kavitia. Solar stills system design: A review Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews November 2015 51:153-181
The fresh water requirement is tremendously increasing in the present society with all kinds of industrial and factory growth leading to more and more pollution of natural resources. On the other hand, there are many arid and desert regions in the world where there are less frequent rainfalls and ground water shortage. Most of the water bodies like rivers, lakes and so forth throughout the world are saline and brackish which are not suitable for domestic, irrigation and especially for drinking purposes. Solar desalination is proven to be eco-friendly and economical way of producing the fresh water to cater to the needs of rural population. Much research has already been done in the field of single effect passive and active solar stills which produces low quantity of fresh water. In recent years, attention has been focused on developing multi-effect solar stills coupling with flat plate and concentrating collectors in order to overcome the drawback of single effect stills. In the present study, a detailed review of all the solar stills both single and multi-effect type with passive and active configuration is presented. The present study aims at describing the design specifications and highlighting the merits and demerits of various solar stills upon which research has been done till recent past. Also a discussion on future scope is given with some recommendations in the field of solar stills improvement to economically produce sustainable potable water.
Ms. Fiorina is the only one in this exchange paying attention to the best available science.
“Carly Fiorina rejects the premise of Chuck Todd’s question that the California drought is the result of climate change, and explains why he shouldn’t begin a question about California’s water policy with the assumption that everything done by the government to regulate water and water policy over the past 40 years has been perfect, safely blaming all problems on vague, semi-measurable “climate changes.” ” click here
The mean sea level trend is 0.88 millimeters/year with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.23 mm/yr based on monthly mean sea level data from 1923 to 2014 which is equivalent to a change of 0.29 feet in 100 years.
“The political correctness born on college campuses has mutated into a new hypersensitivity. It’s weaponized in Washington, D.C. by a network of well-trained operatives, media, and politicians, and proliferated throughout the country. The new Puritans of the Left are quick to ban comedians and commencement speakers alike for the sin of disagreeing with them. They demand “safe spaces” while making dissent increasingly dangerous for Americans.” – from Barnes and Noble
Seema S. Shenvi, Arun M. Isloor, A.F. Ismail. A review on RO membrane technology: Developments and challenges. Desalination Volume 368, 15 July 2015, 10–26
Reverse osmosis (RO) based desalination is one of the most important and widely recognized technologies for production of fresh water from saline water. Since its conception and initiation, a significant development has been witnessed in this technology w.r.t. materials, synthesis techniques, modification and modules over the last few decades. The working of a RO plant inclusive of the pretreatment and post-treatment procedures has been briefly discussed in the article. The main objective of this review is to highlight the historical milestones achieved in RO technology in terms of membrane performance, the developments seen over the last few years and the challenges perceived.
The material properties of the membrane dominate the performance of a RO process. The emergence of nano-technology and biomimetic RO membranes as the futuristic tools is capable of revolutionizing the entire RO process. Hence the development of nano-structured membranes involving thin film nano-composite membranes, carbon-nanotube membranes and aquaporin-based membranes has been focussed in detail. The problems associated with a RO process such as scaling, brine disposal and boron removal are briefed and the measures adopted to address the same have been discussed.
“Hold onto your wallets … many insurers want to substantially hike rates on Obamacare policies for 2016. Many are proposing double-digit premium increases for individual policies, with some companies looking to boost rates more than 60%,” click here
USEPA Administrator McCarthy is certainly correct in saying that low-income minority people will be hardest hit by “climate change” regulations. But her claim about the cost being that of a gallon of milk is creative fiction. Just like Obamacare, costs will go down, right?