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Monthly Archives: October 2015Image
Fluoride in drinking water is also an important source of fluoride exposure in infants.
Nagata ME, Delbem AC, Kondo KY, de Castro LP, Hall KB, Percinoto C, Aguiar SM, Pessan JP. Fluoride concentrations of milk, infant formulae, and soy-based products commercially available in Brazil. J Public Health Dent. 2015 Oct 9. doi: 10.1111/jphd.12121.
OBJECTIVES: To assess the fluoride (F) content in commercially available milk formulae in Brazil and to estimate the F intake in children from this source in the first year of life.
METHODS: Samples of cow’s milk (n = 51), infant formulae (n = 15), powdered milk (n = 13), and soy-based products (n = 4) purchased in Araçatuba (Brazil) had their F content measured using an ion-specific electrode, after hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion. Powdered milk and infant formulae were reconstituted with deionized water, while ready-to-drink products were analyzed without any dilution. Using average infant body masses and suggested volumes of formula consumption for infants 1-12 months of age, possible F ingestion per body mass was estimated. Data were analyzed by descriptive analysis.
RESULTS: Mean F content ranged from 0.02 to 2.52 mg/L in all samples. None of the cow’s milk provided F intake higher than 0.07 mg/kg. However, two infant formulae, one powdered milk, and one soy-milk led to a daily F intake above the suggested threshold for fluorosis when reconstituted with deionized water. Assuming reconstitution of products with tap water at 0.7 ppm F, two infant formulae, five powdered milk, and four soymilks led to daily F intake ranging from 0.108 to 0.851 mg/kg.
CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the consumption of some brands of infant formulae, powdered milk, and soy-based milk in the first year of age could increase the risk of dental fluorosis, reinforcing the need for periodic surveillance of the F content of foods and beverages typically consumed by young children.
If the assumptions inherent in such an analysis (e.g., here) are accepted one would indeed conclude that there is no measurable linkage between sea level and CO2.
“An Inspector General’s report published this summer found that 22 of the 23 Co-Ops lost money in 2014. Nineteen had claims that exceeded premiums, and 13 of 23 were significantly behind their enrollment projections. Insurance industry expert Bob Laszewski has called the Co-Ops, “the canaries in the Obamacare coal mine.” ” click here for article
Mulugeta E, Zewge F, Chandravanshi BS. Development of a Household Water Defluoridation Process Using Aluminium Hydroxide Based Adsorbent. Water Environment Research 2015 Jun;87(6):524-32. doi: 10.2175/106143014X13975035525627.
In this study, the removal of fluoride from water using aluminium hydroxide based adsorbent has been investigated in continuous operation. The effect of fluoride influent concentration, feed flowrate, and adsorbent bed height onto the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system were examined. The fixed-bed adsorption system was found to perform better with lower influent fluoride concentration, lower flowrate, and higher bed depth. Thermodynamic evaluation using the bed depth service time model indicated that the fluoride adsorption capacity was 25.8 mg F-/g of adsorbent, which is high compared to commercially available activated alumina (1.8 to 1.9 mg/g). Kinetic studies showed that the rate of adsorption in continuous studies was in the range of 6.12×10(-3) to 39.3×10(-3) L/mg.h under different operating conditions. The household defluoridation unit (HDU) was tested at an up-flow mode and it was determined that the HDU packed with 0.9 kg of adsorbent with 28.3 cm of bed depth resulted in a specific safe water yield of 823.79 L. Regeneration of the exhaust media using 1% NaOH and 0.1 M HCl showed that the adsorbent could be reused. The estimated running cost of the unit was 2.0 U.S. dollar/m3 of treated water, with the potential to minimize further. Hence, it was concluded that the proposed method is simple and exhibits superior performance for the treatment of fluoride-contaminated water with the potential for household application.
Goschorska M, Gutowska I, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Rać ME, Chlubek D. Fluoride Content in Alcoholic Drinks. Biological Trace Element Research. 2015 Oct 16.
The aim of the study was to determine the role of alcoholic drinks as a potential source of dietary fluoride by means of measuring fluoride levels in selected alcoholic drinks available on the Polish market that are also diverse in terms of the percentage content of ethanol. The study was conducted on 48 types of drinks with low, medium, and high alcohol content available on the Polish market and offered by various manufacturers, both Polish and foreign. Fluoride concentrations in individual samples were measured by potentiometric method with a fluoride ion-selective electrode. The highest fluoride levels were determined in the lowest percentage drinks (less than 10 % v/v ethanol), with the lowest fluoride levels observed in the highest percentage drinks (above 40 % v/v ethanol). In terms of types of alcoholic drinks, the highest fluoride levels were determined in beers and wines, while the lowest levels were observed in vodkas. These data confirm the fact that alcoholic beverages need to be considered as a significant source of fluoride delivered into the body.
Uthappa C, Allam R, Nalini C, Gunti D, Udaragudi P, Tadi G, Murhekar M. An outbreak of cholera in Medipally village, Andhra Pradesh, India, 2013.
Cholera continues to remain endemic in over 50 countries and has caused large epidemics with around 3–5 million cases occurring every year in Asia alone. In India, cholera is endemic in many states. However, etiological information and age-specific incidence related to cholera outbreaks is limited. In November 2013, district authorities reported a cluster of diarrheal disease among residents of Medipally to the state surveillance unit. We investigated this cluster to confirm its etiology, describe its magnitude, identify potential risk factors, and make recommendations for control.
A house-to-house active search was conducted to identify cases of acute diarrhea and collect information on drinking water source. Drinking water samples were collected from common water sources and sampled households to test for bacteriological quality. Ten stool samples were collected for culture. A matched case–control study was conducted to identify the risk factors. A total of 138 case-patients of diarrhea (Attack rate: 11.5/100; Population: 15 1,200) and 1 death (Case Fatality Ratio: 0.72/100) were identified. Five of the 10 stool samples were culture positive for V. cholerae, serogroup O1 El Tor. Drinking water from the overhead tank [Adjusted OR (AOR): 31.94, 95 % CI: 7.3-139.5] was associated with risk of developing illness.
This outbreak affected nearly 11% of the village population and was due to contamination of the main drinking water source. Outbreaks such as this can be prevented by constructing the drain away from the water pipelines and by monitoring regular chlorination of drinking water source and inspection of pipelines for damage.