Daily Archives: December 21, 2015

Miami Beach Sea Level Rise Trend 0.78 ft per 100 years

This type of article (click here) is pure propaganda-like spin. The author has simply not done her homework. Should there not be a sense of due diligence or “standard of care” obligation to readers to provide a proper context?

miami dec 21 image

The mean sea level trend is 2.39 millimeters/year with a 95% confidence
interval of +/- 0.43 mm/yr based on monthly mean sea level data from
1931 to 1981 which is equivalent to a change of 0.78 feet in 100 years.

 

Mr. Marco Rubio Immigration Voting Record a Threat to National Security

“The Gang of Eight comprehensive immigration reform bill passed the Senate  after a series of votes in June 2013. Democrats, who controlled the Senate at the time, unanimously supported the bill, while most Republicans opposed it. The four Republicans on the gang — Marco Rubio, John McCain, Lindsey Graham, and Jeff Flake — of course voted for it, and also agreed with Democrats on a plan to kill almost all GOP amendments.” click here for full article

Naegleria fowleri Survival in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

Miller HC, Wylie J, Dejean G, Kaksonen AH, Sutton D, Braun K, Puzon GJ. Reduced Efficiency of Chlorine Disinfection of Naegleria fowleri in a Drinking Water Distribution Biofilm. Environmental Science and Technology. 2015 Sep 15;49(18):11125-31. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b02947.

Naegleria fowleri associated with biofilm and biological demand water (organic matter suspended in water that consumes disinfectants) sourced from operational drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) had significantly increased resistance to chlorine disinfection. N. fowleri survived intermittent chlorine dosing of 0.6 mg/L for 7 days in a mixed biofilm from field and laboratory-cultured Escherichia coli strains. However, N. fowleri associated with an attached drinking water distribution biofilm survived more than 30 times (20 mg/L for 3 h) the recommended concentration of chlorine for drinking water. N. fowleri showed considerably more resistance to chlorine when associated with a real field biofilm compared to the mixed laboratory biofilm. This increased resistance is likely due to not only the consumption of disinfectants by the biofilm and the reduced disinfectant penetration into the biofilm but also the composition and microbial community of the biofilm itself. The increased diversity of the field biofilm community likely increased N. fowleri’s resistance to chlorine disinfection compared to that of the laboratory-cultured biofilm. Previous research has been conducted in only laboratory scale models of DWDSs and laboratory-cultured biofilms. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating how N. fowleri can persist in a field drinking water distribution biofilm despite chlorination.

Temperature Station Siting Affects Measured Temperature Trends

I’ve never met Mr. Anthony Watts but I’ve read much of his work on the impact of station siting on measured temperature trends. A high-quality temperature station is far superior to arbitrary adjustments of data from poor-quality sites.

“Using NOAA’s U.S. Historical Climatology Network, which comprises 1218 weather stations in the CONUS, the researchers were able to identify a 410 station subset of “unperturbed” stations that have not been moved, had equipment changes, or changes in time of observations, and thus require no “adjustments” to their temperature record to account for these problems. The study focuses on finding trend differences between well sited and poorly sited weather stations, based on a WMO approved metric Leroy (2010)1for classification and assessment of the quality of the measurements based on proximity to artificial heat sources and heat sinks which affect temperature measurement.” click here for poster