Wang N, Wang B, Zhao Q, Fang H, Fu C, Tang C, Jiang F, Zhou Y, Chen Y, Jiang Q. Antibiotics in drinking water in Shanghai and its contribution to antibiotic exposure of school children. Environmental Science and Technology. 2016 Feb 5.
A variety of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environment, but antibiotics in drinking water and its contribution to antibiotic exposure in human are not well explored. For this, representative drinking water samples and 530 urines of school children were selected in Shanghai and 21 common antibiotics (five macrolides, two β-lactams, three tetracyclines, four fluoquinolones, four sulfonamides, and three phenicols) were measured in water samples and urines by isotope dilution two-dimensional ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Drinking water included 46 terminal tap water samples from different spots in the distribution system of the city, 45 bottled water samples from 14 common brands, and eight barreled water samples of different brands. Of 21 antibiotics, only florfenicol and thiamphenicol were found in tap water with the median concentrations of 0.0089ng/mL and 0.0064ng/mL, respectively; only florfenicol was found in three bottled water samples from a same brand with the concentrations ranging from 0.00060ng/mL to 0.0010ng/mL; no antibiotics were found in barreled water. In contrast, besides florfenicol and thiamphenicol, additional 17 antibiotics were detected in urines, and the total daily exposure doses and detection frequencies of florfenicol and thiamphenicol based on urines were significantly and substantially higher than their predicted daily exposure doses and detection frequencies from drinking water by Monte Carlo Simulation. These data indicated that drinking water was contaminated by some antibiotics in Shanghai, but played a limited role in antibiotic exposure of children.