Monthly Archives: March 2016

Why is the Stratosphere Warm?

“It is plain that the temperature of the stratosphere is in large part due to the emission of infra-red radiation from the Earth, an entirely different story to that pedalled by NASA, the teachers association and Wikipedia.” click here

Empirical Evidence Does Not Support UN IPCC Claims

“The authors evaluate the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) “consensus” that the increase of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere is of anthropogenic origin and is causing dangerous global warming, climate change and climate disruption. They conclude that the data does not support the supposition.” click here

A California Cruzer

“The results in Wisconsin will impact significantly the primaries to come,” Cruz told the Associated Press last Friday. “Wisconsin, I believe, will play a critical role continuing to unify Republicans behind our campaign. The only way to beat Donald Trump is with unity.” Cruz also spoke of uniting the Republican Party and defeating Hillary Clinton in response to Walker’s endorsement on Tuesday.” click herehappy-bouncing-smilie

Food is the Greatest Source of Arsenic Exposure for Infants and Toddlers

Food standards are set using a  protocol that is very different than that used for drinking water contaminants. Even if a standard existed it may not prevent arsenic exposures to infants and toddlers from food products. 

Shibata T, Meng C, Umoren J, West H. Risk Assessment of Arsenic in Rice Cereal and Other Dietary Sources for Infants and Toddlers in the U.S. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Mar 25;13(4). pii: E361.

Currently, there are no set standards or quantitative guidelines available in the U.S. for arsenic levels in rice cereal, one of the most common first solid foods for infants. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the detected levels of inorganic arsenic (Asi) in rice cereal in the U.S. market are safe for consumption by infants and toddlers. A risk assessment was conducted based on literature reviews of the reported Asi in rice cereal from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) survey and the recommended daily intake of rice cereal by body weight, for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old. As a part of risk management, a maximum contaminant level (MCL) for Asi in rice cereal was computed considering overall exposure sources including drinking water, infant formula, and other infant solid foods. Hazard quotients (HQs) for acute and chronic exposures were calculated based on the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry’s (ATSDR) Minimal Risk Level (MRL)acute (5.0 × 10-3 mg/kg/day) and MRLchronic (3.0 × 10-4 mg/kg/day). A cancer slope or potency factor of 1.5 mg/kg/day was used to predict an incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR). Exposure assessment showed that the largest source of Asi for infants and toddlers between four and 24 months old was rice cereal (55%), followed by other infant solid food (19%), and drinking water (18%). Infant formula was the smallest source of Asi for babies (9%) at the 50th percentile based on Monte Carlo simulations. While HQacute were consistently below 1.0, HQchronic at the 50 and 75th percentiles exceeded 1.0 for both rice cereal and total sources. ILCR ranged from 10-6 (50th) to 10-5 (75th percentile). MCLs for Asi in rice cereal ranged from 0.0 (chronic) to 0.4 mg/kg (acute exposures).

Geophysical Factors Responsible for CO2 and Global Temperature Increase

“These results indicated that the increase in CO2 and global temperatures are primarily caused by major geophysical factors, particularly the diminishing total geomagnetic field strength and increased geomagnetic activity, but not by human activities.” 

David Vares, T. N. Carniello, M. A. Persinger. Quantification of the Diminishing Earth’s Magnetic Dipole Intensity and Geomagnetic Activity as the Causal Source for Global Warming within the Oceans and Atmosphere. International Journal of Geosciences Vol.07 No.01(2016)

“Quantitative analyses of actual measurements rather than modeling have shown that “global warming” has been heterogeneous over the surface of the planet and temporally non-linear. Residual regression analyses by Soares (2010) indicated increments of increased temperature precede increments of CO2 increase. The remarkably strong negative correlation (r = −0.99) between the earth’s magnetic dipole moment values and global CO2-temperature indicators over the last ~30 years is sufficient to be considered causal if contributing energies were within the same order of magnitude. Quantitative convergence between the energies lost by the diminishing averaged geo- magnetic field strength and energies gained within the ocean-atmosphere interface satisfy the measured values for increased global temperature and CO2 release from sea water. The pivotal variable is the optimal temporal unit employed to estimate the total energies available for physical-chemical reactions. The positive drift in averaged amplitude of geomagnetic activity over the last 100 years augmented this process. Contributions from annual CO2from volcanism and shifts in averaged geomagnetic activity, lagged years before the measured global temperature-CO2 values, are moderating variables for smaller amplitude perturbations. These results indicated that the increase in CO2 and global temperatures are primarily caused by major geophysical factors, particularly the diminishing total geomagnetic field strength and increased geomagnetic activity, but not by human activities. Strategies for adapting to climate change because of these powerful variables may differ from those that assume exclusive anthropomorphic causes.”

How do Climate Models Account for Volcano Eruptions?

“Popocatépetl volcano came to life on Sunday morning, sending a column of gas and ash 2,000 metres (6,500ft) into the sky in central Mexico. A 12km (7.5-mile) security ring around the volcano has been mandated, preventing passage close to the crater. Popocatépetl’s last major eruption was in 2000, when more than 40,000 people had to be evacuated.” click here

Biological Magnetic Powdered Activated Carbon (MPAC)

Lompe KM, Menard D, Barbeau B. Performance of biological magnetic powdered activated carbon for drinking water purification. Water Research 2016 Mar 19;96:42-51. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.040.

Combining the high adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon (PAC) with magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) leads to a promising composite material, magnetic PAC or MPAC, which can be separated from water using magnetic separators. We propose MPAC as an alternative adsorbent in the biological hybrid membrane process and demonstrate that PAC covered with magnetic NPs is suitable as growth support for heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria. MPAC with mass fractions of 0; 23; 38 and 54% maghemite was colonized in small bioreactors for over 90 days. Although the bacterial community composition (16s rRNA analysis) was different on MPAC compared to PAC, NPs neither inhibited dissolved organic carbon and ammonia biological removals nor contributed to significant adsorption of these compounds. The same amount of active heterotrophic biomass (48 μg C/cm3) developed on MPAC with a mass fraction of 54% NPs as on the non-magnetic PAC control. While X-ray diffraction confirmed that size and type of iron oxides did not change over the study period, a loss in magnetization between 10% and 34% was recorded.