Community Health Impact of Extended Loss of Water Service — Alabama, January 2010 MMWR, February 18, 2011, Vol. 60, No. 6
What is already known on this topic? Studies in other countries have identified an association between low pressure events in water distribution systems and gastrointestinal illness; the aging water infrastructure in the United States might increase the risk for similar health effects during main breaks or water-related emergencies that cause loss of pressure throughout the water distribution system.
What is added by this report? In January 2010, in two Alabama communities, persons in households that experienced extended water service interruption were more likely to report acute gastrointestinal illness (AGI) than members of unaffected households; this association was particularly significant among persons in households that experienced ≥7 days of loss of water pressure (15.6% reporting AGI), compared with those unaffected by the water emergency (4.3% reporting AGI).
What are the implications for public health practice? Public health agencies might help to prevent or mitigate the health effects from future water emergencies through efforts to improve community and household preparedness and to develop and implement effective communication strategies to reach diverse communities before and during such emergencies.
Like many other people today UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon (here) seems to be very confused about changes in climate. Even the most brilliant scientist can fool themselves into believing that model projections are reality. They are not. Changes in climate happen.They cannot be denied or derailed. Climate is a dynamic system always in a state of changing and adjusting.
The idea of eliminating carbon-based fuels is self-defeating. Without them solar energy will become even more unsustainable.
Shelly Rodrigo, Martha Sinclair, Andrew Forbes, David Cunliffe, and Karin Leder. Drinking Rainwater: A Double-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Study of Water Treatment Filters and Gastroenteritis Incidence American Journal of Public Health. 2011;101:842-847. doi:10.210B/AJPH.2009.185389)
Objectives. We examined whether drinking untreated rainwater, a practice that is on the rise in developed countries because of water shortages, contributes to community gastroenteritis incidence.
Methods. We conducted a double-blinded, randomized controlled trial in Adelaide, Australia. Sham or active water treatment units were installed, and participants recorded incidences of illness in a health diary for 12 months. The primary outcome was highly credible gastroenteritis (HCG; characterized by a specified number of loose stools or vomiting alone or in combination with abdominal pain or nausea in a 24-hour period), and we used generalized estimating equations to account for correlations between numbers of HCG events for individuals in the same family.
Results. Participants reported 769 episodes during the study (0.77 episodes/ person/year), with an HCG incidence rate ratio (active vs sham) of 1.05 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82, 1.33). Blinding of the participants was effective (index = 0.65; 95% CI =0.58, 0.72).
Conclusions. Our results suggest that consumption of untreated rainwater does not contribute appreciably to community gastroenteritis. However, our findings may not be generalizable to susceptible and immunocompromised persons because these groups were specifically excluded from the study.
“Last summer, University of California scientists made this hysterical claim about the Zachariae Isstrom glacier in northeast Greenland.
It’s a great story, only problem is it is a complete fabrication. If anything, the glacier has grown since 2012.” click here
In this political season much attention is being given to the “climate change” issue and especially comments by the presidential candidates. Mr. Donald Trump offered the following regarding the Paris climate “deal”:
“I will be looking at that very, very seriously and at a minimum I will be renegotiating those agreements, at a minimum. And at a maximum I may do something else,” (cited here)
Kudos to Mr. Trump. Of course, not everyone is very happy about his view on global warming. One commentator argues that Mr. Trump cannot “derail” the Paris climate deal (here).
From what I have seen already Mr. Trump is simply stating the obvious. The Paris climate “deal” will derail itself. Unintended consequences will soon emerge and every country involved will be looking very seriously at renegotiating or changing it to avoid causing greater harm. Or perhaps it will just be ignored.
Treaties and agreements do not change basic physics and chemistry and the scientific regularities we can observe.
Posted in Climate
Arbitrary changes in historical data should be repudiated (click here).