Daily Archives: September 27, 2016

Modern Temperatures (post-1940s) not any Warmer than Prior Decades and Centuries

“Below is a compilation of 50 temperature graphs from peer-reviewed scientific papers. Some graphs indicate that (a) post-1940s temperatures actually declined slightly many regions of the world rather than rose rapidly — the opposite of what climate models had predicted. All the graphs show that (b) modern (post-1940s) temperatures aren’t any warmer than the decades and centuries and millennia prior to the steep increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions, and in some locations even the Little Ice Age temperatures (1400s to 1800s AD) were warmer than modern. Finally, these 50 graphs clearly show that (c) the conceptualization of global-scale warming, or a globally synchronous rise in temperatures for the vast majority of the Earth’s land and oceanic locations in modern times . . . is not scientifically supportable.” click here for No Tricks.

Fluoride Oral Administration a Risk Factor for Renal Tubular Damage

Usuda K, Ueno T, Ito Y, Dote T, Yokoyama H, Kono K, Tamaki J. Risk Assessment Study of Fluoride Salts: Probability-Impact Matrix of Renal and Hepatic Toxicity Markers. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2016 Sep;173(1):154-60. doi: 10.1007/s12011-016-0644-0.

The present risk assessment study of fluoride salts was conducted by oral administration of three different doses of sodium and potassium fluorides (NaF, KF) and zinc fluoride tetrahydrate (ZnF2 •4H2O) to male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into control and nine experimental groups, to which oral injections of 0.5 mL distilled water and 0.5 mL of fluoride solutions, respectively, were given. The dosage of fluoride compounds was adjusted to contain 2.1 mg (low-dose group, LG), 4.3 mg (mid-dose group, MG), and 5.4 mg fluoride per 200 g rat body weight (high-dose group, HG) corresponding to 5, 10, and 12.5 % of LD50 values for NaF. The 24-h urine volume, N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) and creatinine clearance (Ccr) were measured as markers of possible acute renal impact. The levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were determined in serum samples as markers of acute hepatic impact. The levels of serum and urinary fluoride were determined to evaluate fluoride bioavailability. The results reveal that higher doses of NaF, KF, and ZnF2 induced renal damage as indicated by higher urinary NAG (p < 0.05 with ≥90th percentile of control). High doses of ZnF2 also induced a significant Ccr decrease (p < 0.05 with ≤10th percentile of control). Low doses of NaF and mid-doses of ZnF2 induced polyuria (p < 0.05 with ≥90th percentile of control) while medium doses of NaF and low doses of KF also induced liver damage, as indicated by a high level of AST (p < 0.05 with ≥90th percentile of control). These findings suggest that oral administration of fluoride is a potential, dose-dependent risk factor of renal tubular damage.