Brewer GJ. The Copper-2 Hypothesis for Causation of the Current Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic. Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 Feb 6. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00373.
Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia, is at epidemic proportions (15 to 44% depending on age, of those age 65 to 84) in the U.S. and other developed countries, but remains relatively rare in undeveloped countries. Surprisingly, solid historical data reveals the epidemic is a creature of the last century. That is the disease was also rare in developed countries, until the 20th century. It is disappointing that these historical and demographic facts have been ignored by the Alzheimer’s disease scientific community. Disappointing because these facts clearly point at an environmental change in the 20th century in developed countries as a major factor in causing the epidemic. Some scientists have discarded the claimed rarity of the disease in the 19th century as incorrect, saying that Alzheimer’s disease is a disease of aging, and the increasing lifespan of people accounts for the current high prevalence of the disease. But this cavalier attitude ignores historical data indicating there were many elderly people in the 19th century that weren’t getting Alzheimer’s disease with any significant frequency. In this review, after documenting that the observed assertions about historical and demographic facts are correct, evidence is amassed that the main environmental culprit causing the Alzheimer’s epidemic is ingestion of divalent copper, or copper-2. The two sources of copper-2 ingestion are drinking water and multimineral supplement pills containing copper. The increase in copper plumbing use in developed countries parallels the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease. It has been shown that enough copper is leached from copper plumbing in most households to cause Alzheimer’s disease, using the Alzheimer’s disease animal model studies as a guide to toxic levels. It is relatively easy to avoid or greatly diminish copper-2 ingestion by not using copper containing supplement pills, and testing drinking water for copper levels. If the copper in water is too high, a simple device can be put on the tap to remove copper.