Gani KM, Tyagi VK, Kazmi AA. Occurrence of phthalates in aquatic environment and their removal during wastewater treatment processes: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 May 31. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9182-3.
Phthalates are plasticizers and are concerned environmental endocrine-disrupting compounds. Due to their extensive usage in plastic manufacturing and personal care products as well as the potential to leach out from these products, phthalates have been detected in various aquatic environments including drinking water, groundwater, surface water, and wastewater. The primary source of their environmental occurrence is the discharge of phthalate-laden wastewater and sludge. This review focuses on recent knowledge on the occurrence of phthalate in different aquatic environments and their fate in conventional and advanced wastewater treatment processes. This review also summarizes recent advances in biological removal and degradation mechanisms of phthalates, identifies knowledge gaps, and suggests future research directions.