Rocha RA, Calatayud M, Devesa V, Vélez D. Evaluation of exposure to fluoride in child population of North Argentina. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2017 Aug 8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9010-9.
Fluoride is an important element for humans. It inhibits initiation and progression of dental caries and stimulates bone formation. However, excessive intake may lead to the appearance of dental and/or skeletal fluorosis and a decrease in intellectual coefficient in child populations. This study evaluates exposure to fluoride in the child population of Chaco province (Argentina) by analysis of drinking water, food and its bioaccessible fraction (quantity of fluoride solubilised by gastrointestinal digestion and available for intestinal absorption) and urine as a biomarker of internal dose. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varied between 0.050 and 4.6 mg L-1, and 80% of the samples exceeded the WHO drinking-water guideline value (1.5 mg L-1). Fluoride concentrations in food ranged between 0.80 and 3.0 mg kg-1 fresh weight (fw), being lower in bioaccessible fraction (0.43-1.9 mg kg-1, fw). On the basis of the consumption data declared for the young child population, fluoride intake varies between 4.1 and 6.5 mg day-1, greater than the level recommended for this age group. Moreover, in some cases, concentrations of fluoride found in urine (0.62-8.9 mg L-1) exceeded those reported in areas with declared fluorosis. All data obtained show the worrying situation of child population in this area of Argentina.
Deshommes E, Laroche L, Deveau D, Nour S, Prévost M. Short- and Long-Term Lead Release after Partial Lead Service Line Replacements in a Metropolitan Water Distribution System. Environ Sci Technol. 2017 Aug 9. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b01720.
Thirty-three households were monitored in a full-scale water distribution system, to investigate the impact of recent (<2 yr) or old partial lead service line replacements (PLSLRs). Total and particulate lead concentrations were measured using repeat sampling over a period of 1-20 months. Point-of-entry filters were installed to capture sporadic release of particulate lead from the lead service lines (LSLs). Mean concentrations increased immediately after PLSLRs and erratic particulate lead spikes were observed over the 18 month post-PLSLR monitoring period. The mass of lead released during this time frame indicates the occurrence of galvanic corrosion and scale destabilization. System-wide, lead concentrations were however lower in households with PLSLRs as compared to those with no replacement, especially for old PLSLRs. Nonetheless, 61% of PLSLR samples still exceeded 10 μg/L, reflecting the importance of implementing full LSL replacement and efficient risk communication. Acute concentrations measured immediately after PLSLRs demonstrate the need for appropriate flushing procedures to prevent lead poisoning.
Kumar A, Kaur M, Mehra R, Sharma DK, Mishra R. Comparative Study of Radon Concentration With Two Techniques and Elemental Analysis in Drinking Water Samples of the Jammu District, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Health physics. 2017 Aug 7. doi: 10.1097/HP.0000000000000644.
The level of radon concentration has been assessed using the Advanced SMART RnDuo technique in 30 drinking water samples from Jammu district, Jammu and Kashmir, India. The water samples were collected from wells, hand pumps, submersible pumps, and stored waters. The randomly obtained 14 values of radon concentration in water sources using the SMART RnDuo technique have been compared and cross checked by a RAD7 device. A good positive correlation (R = 0.88) has been observed between the two techniques. The overall value of radon concentration in various water sources has ranged from 2.45 to 18.43 Bq L, with a mean value of 8.24 ± 4.04 Bq L, and it agreed well with the recommended limit suggested by the European Commission and UNSCEAR. However, the higher activity of mean radon concentration was found in groundwater drawn from well, hand and submersible pumps as compared to stored water. The total annual effective dose due to radon inhalation and ingestion ranged from 6.69 to 50.31 μSv y with a mean value of 22.48 ± 11.03 μSv y. The total annual effective dose was found to lie within the safe limit (100 μSv y) suggested by WHO. Heavy metal analysis was also carried out in various water sources by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS), and the highest value of heavy metals was found mostly in groundwater samples. The obtained results were compared with Indian and International organizations like WHO and the EU Council. Among all the samples, the elemental analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit.
Stets EG, Lee CJ, Lytle DA, Schock MR. Increasing chloride in rivers of the conterminous U.S. and linkages to potential corrosivity and lead action level exceedances in drinking water. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Jul 25. pii: S0048-9697(17)31822-3. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.119.
Corrosion in water-distribution systems is a costly problem and controlling corrosion is a primary focus of efforts to reduce lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) in tap water. High chloride concentrations can increase the tendency of water to cause corrosion in distribution systems. The effects of chloride are also expressed in several indices commonly used to describe the potential corrosivity of water, the chloride-sulfate mass ratio (CSMR) and the Larson Ratio (LR). Elevated CSMR has been linked to the galvanic corrosion of Pb whereas LR is indicative of the corrosivity of water to iron and steel. Despite the known importance of chloride, CSMR, and LR to the potential corrosivity of water, monitoring of seasonal and interannual changes in these parameters is not common among water purveyors. We analyzed long-term trends (1992-2012) and the current status (2010-2015) of chloride, CSMR, and LR in order to investigate the short and long-term temporal variability in potential corrosivity of US streams and rivers. Among all sites in the trend analyses, chloride, CSMR, and LR increased slightly, with median changes of 0.9mgL-1, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. However, urban-dominated sites had much larger increases, 46.9mgL-1, 2.50, and 0.53, respectively. Median CSMR and LR in urban streams (4.01 and 1.34, respectively) greatly exceeded thresholds found to cause corrosion in water distribution systems (0.5 and 0.3, respectively). Urbanization was strongly correlated with elevated chloride, CSMR, and LR, especially in the most snow-affected areas in the study, which are most likely to use road salt. The probability of Pb action-level exceedances (ALEs) in drinking water facilities increased along with raw surface water CSMR, indicating a statistical connection between surface water chemistry and corrosion in drinking water facilities. Optimal corrosion control will require monitoring of critical constituents reflecting the potential corrosivity in surface waters.
Jian JM, Guo Y, Zeng L, Liang-Ying L, Lu X, Wang F, Zeng EY. Global distribution of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in potential human exposure source-A review. Environ Int. 2017 Aug 8;108:51-62. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.07.024.
Human exposure to perfluorochemicals (PFCs) has attracted mounting attention due to their potential harmful effects. Breathing, dietary intake, and drinking are believed to be the main routes for PFC entering into human body. Thus, we profiled PFC compositions and concentrations in indoor air and dust, food, and drinking water with detailed analysis of literature data published after 2010. Concentrations of PFCs in air and dust samples collected from home, office, and vehicle were outlined. The results showed that neutral PFCs (e.g., fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and perfluorooctane sulfonamide ethanols (FOSEs)) should be given attention in addition to PFOS and PFOA. We summarized PFC concentrations in various food items, including vegetables, dairy products, beverages, eggs, meat products, fish, and shellfish. We showed that humans are subject to the dietary PFC exposure mostly through fish and shellfish consumption. Concentrations of PFCs in different drinking water samples collected from various countries were analyzed. Well water and tap water contained relatively higher PFC concentrations than other types of drinking water. Furthermore, PFC contamination in drinking water was influenced by the techniques for drinking water treatment and bottle-originating pollution.
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Xiao F. Emerging poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances in the aquatic environment: A review of current literature. Water research 2017 Jul 15;124:482-495. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.07.024.
Poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) comprise a group of synthetic organic surfactants with a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. A few PFASs such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are now known to be ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. They have become a global concern because of the toxicity and bioaccumulative properties. With the increasing availability of high-resolution mass spectrometers, many novel PFASs have been identified. Studies published between 2009 and 2017 have discovered 455 new PFASs (including nine fully and 446 partially fluorinated compounds), 45%, 29%, 17%, and 8% of which are anions, zwitterions, cations, and neutrals, respectively. They have been identified in natural waters, fish, sediments, wastewater, activated sludge, soils, aqueous film-forming foams, and commercial fluoropolymer surfactants. This article integrates and critically evaluates what is known about these newly identified PFASs. It discusses the different aspects of detection methodologies. It also surveys the removal of these compounds during conventional and advanced drinking-water and wastewater treatment, predicts the relevant physicochemical properties by means of four software programs, and identifies major knowledge gaps. Notably, a number of these newly identified PFASs are potential precursor compounds of PFOS and PFOA. Studies are critically needed to understand the removal and transformation of these compounds in natural and engineered environmental systems and their contribution, if any, to the secondary formation of PFOS and PFOA in these systems.