Qinghong Zhang, Xiang Ni, Fuqing Zhang. Decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence over China during the past 50 years. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 42310 (2017)
Understanding the trend of localized severe weather under the changing climate is of great significance but remains challenging which is at least partially due to the lack of persistent and homogeneous severe weather observations at climate scales while the detailed physical processes of severe weather cannot be resolved in global climate models. Based on continuous and coherent severe weather reports from over 500 manned stations, for the first time, this study shows a significant decreasing trend in severe weather occurrence across China during the past five decades. The total number of severe weather days that have either thunderstorm, hail and/or damaging wind decrease about 50% from 1961 to 2010. It is further shown that the reduction in severe weather occurrences correlates strongly with the weakening of East Asian summer monsoon which is the primary source of moisture and dynamic forcing conducive for warm-season severe weather over China.
Having lived through Watergate, I have to wonder….
“So far, congressional investigators have found out that the Hillary Clinton campaign and the Democratic National Committee paid for the Trump dossier, through their law firm Perkins Coie. Clinton campaign and DNC officials have denied knowing about it. Perkins Coie initially denied funding the dossier, before they were forced to admit it after the House intelligence committee subpoenaed for financial records.” click here
Azanu D, Styrishave B, Darko G, Weisser JJ, Abaidoo RC. Occurrence and risk assessment of antibiotics in water and lettuce in Ghana. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 4;622-623:293-305. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.11.287.
Hospital wastewater and effluents from waste stabilization ponds in Kumasi, Ghana, are directly discharged as low quality water into nearby streams which are eventually used to irrigate vegetables. The presence of 12 commonly used antibiotics in Ghana (metronidazole, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, trimethoprim, ampicillin, cefuroxime, sulfamethoxazole, amoxicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline) were investigated in water and lettuce samples collected in three different areas in Kumasi, Ghana. The water samples were from hospital wastewater, wastewater stabilization ponds, rivers and irrigation water, while the lettuce samples were from vegetable farms and market vendors. Antibiotics in water samples were extracted using SPE while antibiotics in lettuce samples were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction followed by SPE. All extracted antibiotics samples were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. All studied compounds were detected in concentrations significantly higher (p=0.01) in hospital wastewater than in the other water sources. The highest concentration found in the present study was 15μg/L for ciprofloxacin in hospital wastewater. Irrigation water samples analyzed had concentrations of antibiotics up to 0.2μg/L. Wastewater stabilization ponds are low technology but effective means of removing antibiotics with removal efficiency up to 95% recorded in this study. However, some chemicals are still found in levels indicating medium to high risk of antibiotics resistance development in the environment. The total concentrations of antibiotics detected in edible lettuce tissues from vegetable farms and vegetable sellers at the markets were in the range of 12.0-104 and 11.0-41.4ng/kg (fresh weight) respectively. The antibiotics found with high concentrations in all the samples were sulfamethoxazole, erythromycin, ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime and trimethoprim. Furthermore, our study confirms the presence of seven antibiotics in lettuce from irrigation farms and markets, suggesting an indirect exposure of humans to antibiotics through vegetable consumption and drinking water in Ghana. However, estimated daily intake for a standard 60kg woman was 0.3ng/day, indicating low risk for human health.