Sang C, An W, Han M, Yang M. Health risk assessment on N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water and food in major cities of China with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2018 Dec 11;170:412-417. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.128.
In this study, a health risk assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water and food was conducted using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in major cities of China. Considering the numerous non-detected values found in drinking water samples, a zero-inflated model was employed to obtain a more precise NDMA concentration distribution function in drinking water. With exogenous chronic daily intake of 1.20 × 10-6 mg/(kg*d), the lifetime cancer risk and disability-adjusted life years of NDMA are 4.01 × 10-5 and 5.52 × 10-6 per person-year (ppy). The disease burden attributable to water sources accounts for nearly 9.94% of total exogenous intake. The contribution rate of vegetables is the largest, followed by cereals, milk products, fish and shrimp, and meat. Taking endogenous sources into consideration, the contribution rates of drinking water and food sources decrease to 0.08% and 0.69%. This study provides a scientific basis for making policy decisions on NDMA pollution management.