Category Archives: Fluoride

Fluoride Effects IQ of 12-14 Year-Old Children, India

Razdan P, Patthi B, Kumar JK, Agnihotri N, Chaudhari P, Prasad M. Effect of Fluoride Concentration in Drinking Water on Intelligence Quotient of 12-14-Year-Old Children in Mathura District: A Cross-Sectional Study. Journal of International Society of Preventive and Community Dentistry. 2017 Sep-Oct;7(5):252-258. doi: 10.4103/jispcd.JISPCD_201_17.

AIMS: The aim was to assess and correlate the influence of the concentration of fluoride in ingested water on the intelligence quotient (IQ) of 12-14-year-old youngsters in Mathura district.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 219 children were selected, 75 from low F area, 75 medium F area, and 69 from high F area. The concentration of fluoride in the routinely ingested water was estimated using “Ion Selective Electrode method”; then, Raven’s Test was utilized to estimate the IQ of the study participants. Independent t-test, Tukey’s post hoc, Chi-square an analysis of variance tests were used to associate the mean and proportion IQ scores in high-, medium-, and low-fluoride regions along with inter-group significant differences (P ≤ 0.05).

RESULTS: The comparison of IQ score showed that 35 (46.7%) participants from the high fluoride and 10 (13.3%) participants from the medium-fluoride areas had below average IQ. Further, it was noted that the lowest mean marks were obtained by the children in the high-fluoride region (13.9467) followed by those in medium (18.9467) and uppermost in least noted fluoride area (38.6087). However, gender-based intergroup comparison did not produce a significant relation with fluoride (P ≥ 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Concentration of Fluoride in the ingested water was significantly associated with the IQ of children. It has also coined the proportional variability in mental output in accordance to the ingested fluoride level. As two sides of a coin, fluoride cannot be utterly blamed for a lower intelligence in a population; it puts forward a fact that intelligence is a multifactorial variable with a strategic role played by genetics and nutrition to develop cognitive and psychosomatic activities in an individual.

Prenatal Fluoride Exposure Associated with Lower Cognitive Function, Mexico

Bashash M, Thomas D, Hu H, Angeles Martinez-Mier E, Sanchez BN, Basu N, Peterson KE, Ettinger AS, Wright R, Zhang Z, Liu Y, Schnaas L, Mercado-García A, María Téllez-Rojo M, Hernández-Avila M. Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6-12 Years of Age in Mexico. Environmental health perspectives. 2017 Sep 19;125(9):097017. doi: 10.1289/EHP655.

BACKGROUND: Some evidence suggests that fluoride may be neurotoxic to children. Few of the epidemiologic studies have been longitudinal, had individual measures of fluoride exposure, addressed the impact of prenatal exposures or involved more than 100 participants.

OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to estimate the association of prenatal exposure to fluoride with offspring neurocognitive development.

METHODS: We studied participants from the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) project. An ion-selective electrode technique was used to measure fluoride in archived urine samples taken from mothers during pregnancy and from their children when 6-12 y old, adjusted for urinary creatinine and specific gravity, respectively. Child intelligence was measured by the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children’s Abilities at age 4 and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ) from the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI) at age 6-12.

RESULTS: We had complete data on 299 mother-child pairs, of whom 287 and 211 had data for the GCI and IQ analyses, respectively. Mean (SD) values for urinary fluoride in all of the mothers (n=299) and children with available urine samples (n=211) were 0.90 (0.35) mg/L and 0.82 (0.38) mg/L, respectively. In multivariate models we found that an increase in maternal urine fluoride of 0.5mg/L (approximately the IQR) predicted 3.15 (95% CI: -5.42, -0.87) and 2.50 (95% CI -4.12, -0.59) lower offspring GCI and IQ scores, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, higher prenatal fluoride exposure, in the general range of exposures reported for other general population samples of pregnant women and nonpregnant adults, was associated with lower scores on tests of cognitive function in the offspring at age 4 and 6-12 y.

Fluoride and Human Lung Cell Toxicity

Ying J, Xu J, Shen L, Mao Z, Liang J, Lin S, Yu X, Pan R, Yan C, Li S, Bao Q, Li P. The Effect of Sodium Fluoride on Cell Apoptosis and the Mechanism of Human Lung BEAS-2B Cells In Vitro. Biological trace element research. 2017 Jan 22. doi: 10.1007/s12011-017-0937-y.

Sodium fluoride (NaF) is a source of fluoride ions used in many applications. Previous studies found that NaF suppressed the proliferation of osteoblast MC3T3 E1 cells and induced the apoptosis of chondrocytes. However, little is known about the effects of NaF on human lung BEAS-2B cells. Therefore, we investigated the mode of cell death induced by NaF and its underlying molecular mechanisms. BEAS-2B cells were treated with NaF at concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mmol/L. Cell viability decreased and apoptotic cells significantly increased as concentrations of NaF increased over specific periods of time. The IC50 of NaF was 1.9 and 0.9 mM after 24 and 48 h, respectively. The rates of apoptosis increased from 4.8 to 37.7% after NaF exposure. HE staining, electron microscopy, and single cell gel electrophoresis revealed that morphological changes of apoptosis increased with exposure concentrations. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect the apoptotic pathways. The expressions of bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, p53, and the cytoplasmic CytC of the NaF groups increased, while bcl-2 and mitochondrial CytC decreased compared with that of the control group (P < 0.05). Further, the fluorescence intensities of ROS in the NaF groups were higher than those in the control group, and the membrane potential of mitochondria in the NaF group was significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.05). These findings suggested that NaF induced apoptosis in the BEAS-2B cells through mitochondria-mediated signal pathways. Our study provides the theoretical foundation and experimental basis for exploring the mechanisms of human lung epithelial cell damage and cytotoxicity induced by fluorine.

Pulmonary Fluorosis

Ameeramja J, Perumal E. Pulmonary fluorosis: a review. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2017 Aug 25. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9951-z.

The increased industrialization and improvised human lifestyle lead to a surge in environmental pollution nowadays. Even the chemicals which are known as prophylactic agents were currently liable to be toxic. One among them is inorganic fluoride whose wider application in numerous processes makes it as an inevitable environmental contaminant and industrial pollutant. Although the systemic toxicity of fluoride has been extensively studied, still there is lacuna in the field of pulmonary fluoride toxicity. Hence, we have focused on the molecular mechanism of action of fluoride compounds on pulmonary system. A study of literatures that focused on the potential physiological and toxicological consequences of fluoride on pulmonary system was carried out. The goal of this review is to present an overview of the research carried out till date on the molecular aspects of fluoride exposure with emphasis on pulmonary system and their possible mechanisms.

Child Exposure to Fluoride, Northern Argentina

Rocha RA, Calatayud M, Devesa V, Vélez D. Evaluation of exposure to fluoride in child population of North Argentina. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2017 Aug 8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9010-9.

Fluoride is an important element for humans. It inhibits initiation and progression of dental caries and stimulates bone formation. However, excessive intake may lead to the appearance of dental and/or skeletal fluorosis and a decrease in intellectual coefficient in child populations. This study evaluates exposure to fluoride in the child population of Chaco province (Argentina) by analysis of drinking water, food and its bioaccessible fraction (quantity of fluoride solubilised by gastrointestinal digestion and available for intestinal absorption) and urine as a biomarker of internal dose. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varied between 0.050 and 4.6 mg L-1, and 80% of the samples exceeded the WHO drinking-water guideline value (1.5 mg L-1). Fluoride concentrations in food ranged between 0.80 and 3.0 mg kg-1 fresh weight (fw), being lower in bioaccessible fraction (0.43-1.9 mg kg-1, fw). On the basis of the consumption data declared for the young child population, fluoride intake varies between 4.1 and 6.5 mg day-1, greater than the level recommended for this age group. Moreover, in some cases, concentrations of fluoride found in urine (0.62-8.9 mg L-1) exceeded those reported in areas with declared fluorosis. All data obtained show the worrying situation of child population in this area of Argentina.

Chronic excessive fluoride intake can adversely affect organ systems

Yan X, Wang L, Yang X, Qiu Y, Tian X, Lv Y, Tian F, Song G, Wang T. Fluoride induces apoptosis in H9c2 cardiomyocytes via the mitochondrial pathway. Chemosphere. 2017 Sep;182:159-165. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.05.002.

Numerous studies have shown that chronic excessive fluoride intake can adversely affect different organ systems. In particular, the cardiovascular system is susceptible to disruption by a high concentration of fluoride. The objectives of this study were to explore the mechanism of apoptosis by detecting the toxic effects of different concentrations of sodium fluoride (NaF) in H9c2 cells exposed for up to 96 h. NaF not only inhibited H9c2 cell proliferation but also induced apoptosis and morphological damage. With increasing NaF concentrations, early apoptosis of H9c2 cells was increased while the mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased. Compared with the control group, the mRNA levels of caspase-3, caspase-9, and cytochrome c all increased with increasing concentrations of NaF. In summary, these data suggest that apoptosis is involved in NaF-induced H9c2 cell toxicity and that activation of the mitochondrial pathway may occur.

Risk Assessment of Chinese Resident’s Exposure to Fluoride

Zhang LE, Huang D, Yang J, Wei X, Qin J, Ou S, Zhang Z, Zou Y. Probabilistic risk assessment of Chinese residents’ exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water in endemic fluorosis areas. Environmental pollution 2017 Mar;222:118-125. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2016.12.074.

Studies have yet to evaluate the effects of water improvement on fluoride concentrations in drinking water and the corresponding health risks to Chinese residents in endemic fluorosis areas (EFAs) at a national level. This paper summarized available data in the published literature (2008-2016) on water fluoride from the EFAs in China before and after water quality was improved. Based on these obtained data, health risk assessment of Chinese residents’ exposure to fluoride in improved drinking water was performed by means of a probabilistic approach. The uncertainties in the risk estimates were quantified using Monte Carlo simulation and sensitivity analysis. Our results showed that in general, the average fluoride levels (0.10-2.24 mg/L) in the improved drinking water in the EFAs of China were lower than the pre-intervention levels (0.30-15.24 mg/L). The highest fluoride levels were detected in North and Southwest China. The mean non-carcinogenic risks associated with consumption of the improved drinking water for Chinese residents were mostly accepted (hazard quotient < 1), but the non-carcinogenic risk of children in most of the EFAs at the 95th percentile exceeded the safe level of 1, indicating the potential non-cancer-causing health effects on this fluoride-exposed population. Sensitivity analyses indicated that fluoride concentration in drinking water, ingestion rate of water, and the exposure time in the shower were the most relevant variables in the model, therefore, efforts should focus mainly on the definition of their probability distributions for a more accurate risk assessment.