Goschorska M, Baranowska-Bosiacka I, Gutowska I, Metryka E, Skórka-Majewicz M, Chlubek D. Potential Role of Fluoride in the Etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer’s Disease. Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Dec 9;19(12). pii: E3965. doi: 10.3390/ijms19123965.
The etiopathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease has not been fully explained. Now, the disease is widely attributed both to genetic and environmental factors. It is believed that only a small percentage of new AD cases result solely from genetic mutations, with most cases attributed to environmental factors or to the interaction of environmental factors with preexistent genetic determinants. Fluoride is widespread in the environment and it easily crosses the blood⁻brain barrier. In the brain fluoride affects cellular energy metabolism, synthesis of inflammatory factors, neurotransmitter metabolism, microglial activation, and the expression of proteins involved in neuronal maturation. Finally, and of specific importance to its role in Alzheimer’s disease, studies report fluoride-induced apoptosis and inflammation within the central nervous system. This review attempts to elucidate the potential relationship between the effects of fluoride exposure and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. We describe the impact of fluoride-induced oxidative stress and inflammation in the pathogenesis of AD and demonstrate a role for apoptosis in disease progression, as well as a mechanism for its initiation by fluoride. The influence of fluoride on processes of AD initiation and progression is complex and warrants further investigation, especially considering growing environmental fluoride pollution.
Waugh DT. Fluoride Exposure Induces Inhibition of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Contributing to Impaired Iodine Absorption and Iodine Deficiency: Molecular Mechanisms of Inhibition and Implications for Public Health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Mar 26;16(6). pii: E1086. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16061086.
The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is the plasma membrane glycoprotein that mediates active iodide transport in the thyroid and other tissues, such as the salivary, gastric mucosa, rectal mucosa, bronchial mucosa, placenta and mammary glands. In the thyroid, NIS mediates the uptake and accumulation of iodine and its activity is crucial for the development of the central nervous system and disease prevention. Since the discovery of NIS in 1996, research has further shown that NIS functionality and iodine transport is dependent on the activity of the sodium potassium activated adenosine 5′-triphosphatase pump (Na+, K+-ATPase). In this article, I review the molecular mechanisms by which F inhibits NIS expression and functionality which in turn contributes to impaired iodide absorption, diminished iodide-concentrating ability and iodine deficiency disorders. I discuss how NIS expression and activity is inhibited by thyroglobulin (Tg), tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), insulin like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and how fluoride upregulates expression and activity of these biomarkers. I further describe the crucial role of prolactin and megalin in regulation of NIS expression and iodine homeostasis and the effect of fluoride in down regulating prolactin and megalin expression. Among many other issues, I discuss the potential conflict between public health policies such as water fluoridation and its contribution to iodine deficiency, neurodevelopmental and pathological disorders. Further studies are warranted to examine these associations.
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Duan Q, Jiao J, Chen X, Wang X. Association between water fluoride and the level of children’s intelligence: a dose-response meta-analysis. Public health. 2018 Jan;154:87-97. doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2017.08.013.
OBJECTIVES: Higher fluoride concentrations in water have inconsistently been associated with the levels of intelligence in children. The following study summarizes the available evidence regarding the strength of association between fluoridated water and children’s intelligence.
STUDY DESIGN: Meta-analysis.
METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were systematically analyzed from November 2016. Observational studies that have reported on intelligence levels in relation to high and low water fluoride contents, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were included. Further, the results were pooled using inverse variance methods. The correlation between water fluoride concentration and intelligence level was assessed by a dose-response meta-analysis.
RESULTS: Twenty-six studies reporting data on 7258 children were included. The summary results indicated that high water fluoride exposure was associated with lower intelligence levels (standardized mean difference : -0.52; 95% CI: -0.62 to -0.42; P < 0.001). The findings from subgroup analyses were consistent with those from overall analysis. The dose-response meta-analysis suggested a significant association between water fluoride dosage and intelligence (P < 0.001), while increased water fluoride exposure was associated with reduced intelligence levels.
CONCLUSIONS: Greater exposure to high levels of fluoride in water was significantly associated with reduced levels of intelligence in children. Therefore, water quality and exposure to fluoride in water should be controlled in areas with high fluoride levels in water.
Krishna KumarYadav et al. Fluoride contamination, health problems and remediation methods in Asian groundwater: A comprehensive review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Volume 182, 30 October 2019, 109362
In low concentration, fluoride is considered a necessary compound for human health. Exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is the reason for a serious disease called fluorosis. Fluorosis is categorized as Skeletal and Dental fluorosis. Several Asian countries, such as India, face contamination of water resources with fluoride. In this study, a comprehensive overview on fluoride contamination in Asian water resources has been presented. Since water contamination with fluoride in India is higher than other Asian countries, a separate section was dedicated to review published articles on fluoride contamination in this country. The status of health effects in Asian countries was another topic that was reviewed in this study. The effects of fluoride on human organs/systems such as urinary, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, brain, and reproductive systems were another topic that was reviewed in this study. Different methods to remove fluoride from water such as reverse osmosis, electrocoagulation, nanoﬁltration, adsorption, ion-exchange and precipitation/coagulation were introduced in this study. Although several studies have been carried out on contamination of water resources with fluoride, the situation of water contamination with fluoride and newly developed technology to remove fluoride from water in Asian countries has not been reviewed. Therefore, this review is focused on these issues: 1) The status of fluoride contamination in Asian countries, 2) health effects of fluoride contamination in drinking water in Asia, and 3) the existing current technologies for defluoridation in Asia.