Nassar R, Mokh S, Rifai A, Chamas F, Hoteit M, Al Iskandarani M. Transformation of sulfaquinoxaline by chlorine and UV light in water: kinetics and by-product identification. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Dec 1. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-0814-4.
Sulfaquinoxaline (SQX) is an antimicrobial of the sulfonamide class, frequently detected at low levels in drinking and surface water as organic micropollutant. The main goal of the present study is the evaluation of SQX reactivity during chlorination and UV irradiations which are two processes mainly used in water treatment plants. The SQX transformation by chlorination and UV lights (254 nm) was investigated in purified water at common conditions used for water disinfection (pH = 7.2, temperature = 25 °C, [chlorine] = 3 mg L-1). The result shows a slow degradation of SQX during photolysis compared with chlorination process. Kinetic studies that fitted a fluence-based first-order kinetic model were used to determine the kinetic constants of SQX degradation; they were equal to 0.7 × 10-4 and 0.7 × 10-2 s-1 corresponding to the half time lives of 162 and 1.64 min during photolysis and chlorination, respectively. In the second step, seven by-products were generated during a chlorination and photo-transformation of SQX and identified using liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization and tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS). SO2 extrusion and direct decomposition were the common degradation pathway during photolysis and chlorination. Hydroxylation and isomerization were observed during photodegradation only while electrophilic substitution was observed during chlorination process.
“After a monumental mistake where the New York Times was caught peddling false information, they’re at it again.
Last night, the New York Times’ Eric Lipton and Roni Rabin reported on false facts about the EPA’s decision not to ban the pesticide Chlorpyrifos and the decision to continue the review regarding the pesticide.” click here
Li Z, Jennings A. Worldwide Regulations of Standard Values of Pesticides for Human Health Risk Control: A Review. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2017 Jul 22;14(7). pii: E826. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14070826.
The impact of pesticide residues on human health is a worldwide problem, as human exposure to pesticides can occur through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Regulatory jurisdictions have promulgated the standard values for pesticides in residential soil, air, drinking water, and agricultural commodity for years. Until now, more than 19,400 pesticide soil regulatory guidance values (RGVs) and 5400 pesticide drinking water maximum concentration levels (MCLs) have been regulated by 54 and 102 nations, respectively. Over 90 nations have provided pesticide agricultural commodity maximum residue limits (MRLs) for at least one of the 12 most commonly consumed agricultural foods. A total of 22 pesticides have been regulated with more than 100 soil RGVs, and 25 pesticides have more than 100 drinking water MCLs. This research indicates that those RGVs and MCLs for an individual pesticide could vary over seven (DDT drinking water MCLs), eight (Lindane soil RGVs), or even nine (Dieldrin soil RGVs) orders of magnitude. Human health risk uncertainty bounds and the implied total exposure mass burden model were applied to analyze the most commonly regulated and used pesticides for human health risk control. For the top 27 commonly regulated pesticides in soil, there are at least 300 RGVs (8% of the total) that are above all of the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty. For the top 29 most-commonly regulated pesticides in drinking water, at least 172 drinking water MCLs (5% of the total) exceed the computed upper bounds for human health risk uncertainty; while for the 14 most widely used pesticides, there are at least 310 computed implied dose limits (28.0% of the total) that are above the acceptable daily intake values. The results show that some worldwide standard values were not derived conservatively enough to avoid human health risk by the pesticides, and that some values were not computed comprehensively by considering all major human exposure pathways.
Cui L, Wei L, Wang J. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in surface water of a megacity in central China: seasonal-spatial distribution and fate in Wuhan. Environmental science and pollution research international 2016 Oct 31.
Surface water quality closely correlating with human health suffered increasing organochlorine pesticide (OCP) pollution due to the intensive anthropogenic activities in megacities. In the present study, 112 water samples collected from 14 lakes and 11 drinking water source sites in Wuhan were detected for the residues of OCPs in November 2013 and July 2014, respectively. The ΣOCPs ranged from 5.61 to 13.62 ng L-1in summer with the maximum value in Yezhi Lake and 3.18 to 7.73 ng L-1 in winter with the highest concentration in Yandong Lake. Except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (DDTs), OCP concentrations in summer were significantly higher than those in winter mostly due to the non-point source pollution including land runoff in summer. Source apportionment of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs revealed the historical use of technical HCH and lindane and the new input of DDT, respectively. The spatial distribution of OCPs was not uniform in the surface water of Wuhan because of the significant influence of land development and fishery. The risk assessments showed the heptachlor, and heptachlor epoxide in most sampling sites exceeded the threshold set by the European Union, indicating the possible adverse effects for aquatic lives. Negligible non-carcinogenic risks for drinking and bathing as well as carcinogenic risks for bathing were found in the surface water. However, the total carcinogenic risks of all OCPs (∑Rs) caused by drinking in summer were higher than the safe level of 10-7 in all sampling sites. It was implied that the surface water in Wuhan was not safe for directly drinking without effective purification.
Shao Y, Yang G, Liu W, Ma L, Luo M, Xu D. Organochlorine pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls in surface water around Beijing. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2016 Sep 23.
Contaminant concentrations, sources, seasonal variation, and eco-toxicological risk of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in surface water around Beijing from summer to winter in 2015 and 2016 were investigated. The concentrations of ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs ranged from 9.81 to 32.1 ng L-1 (average 15.1 ± 7.78 ng L-1) and from 7.41 to 54.5 ng L-1 (average 21.3 ± 1.87 ng L-1), respectively. Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs) were the dominated contamination both in aqueous and particulate phase. For PCBs, lower chlorinated PCBs were the major contaminants. Compositions of HCHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs), and PCBs indicated that the sources of OCPs and PCBs in water were due to historical usage in the study areas. For OCPs, there was an obvious variation among three seasons, while insignificant change was shown for PCBs. Water quality standards for China’s surface water were not exceeded in this study. Concentrations at Miyun Reservoir, the primary source of drinking water to Beijing, when compared to the USEPA’s criterion for cancer risk was below the level of risk.
Kim KH, Kabir E, Jahan SA. Exposure to pesticides and the associated human health effects. The Science of the total environment. 2016 Sep 7. pii: S0048-9697(16)31926-X. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.09.009.
Pesticides are used widely to control weeds and insect infestation in agricultural fields and various pests and disease carriers (e.g., mosquitoes, ticks, rats, and mice) in houses, offices, malls, and streets. As the modes of action for pesticides are not species-specific, concerns have been raised about environmental risks associated with their exposure through various routes (e.g., residues in food and drinking water). Although such hazards range from short-term (e.g., skin and eye irritation, headaches, dizziness, and nausea) to chronic impacts (e.g., cancer, asthma, and diabetes), their risks are difficult to elucidate due to the involvement of various factors (e.g., period and level of exposure, type of pesticide (regarding toxicity and persistence), and the environmental characteristics of the affected areas). There are no groups in the human population that are completely unexposed to pesticides while most diseases are multi-causal to add considerable complexity to public health assessments. Hence, development of eco-friendly pesticide alternatives (e.g., EcoSMART) and Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques is desirable to reduce the impacts of pesticides. This paper was hence organized to present a comprehensive review on pesticides with respect to their types, environmental distribution, routes of exposure, and health impacts.
Mekonen S, Argaw R, Simanesew A, Houbraken M, Senaeve D, Ambelu A, Spanoghe P. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia. Chemosphere 2016 Aug 5;162:252-260. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.07.096.
Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks.