Shuai-Lei Yao, Jing-Jia Luo, Gang Huang & Pengfei Wang. Distinct global warming rates tied to multiple ocean surface temperature changes. Nature Climate Change (2017) doi:10.1038/nclimate3304
The globally averaged surface temperature has shown distinct multi-decadal fluctuations since 1900, characterized by two weak slowdowns in the mid-twentieth century and early twenty-first century and two strong accelerations in the early and late twentieth century. While the recent global warming (GW) hiatus has been particularly ascribed to the eastern Pacific cooling, causes of the cooling in the mid-twentieth century and distinct intensity differences between the slowdowns and accelerations remain unclear. Here, our model experiments with multiple ocean sea surface temperature (SST) forcing reveal that, although the Pacific SSTs play essential roles in the GW rates, SST changes in other basins also exert vital influences. The mid-twentieth-century cooling results from the SST cooling in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic, which is partly offset by the Southern Ocean warming. During the recent hiatus, the tropical Pacific-induced strong cooling is largely compensated by warming effects of other oceans. In contrast, during the acceleration periods, ubiquitous SST warming across all the oceans acts jointly to exaggerate the GW. Multi-model simulations with separated radiative forcing suggest diverse causes of the SST changes in multiple oceans during the GW acceleration and slowdown periods. Our results highlight the importance of multiple oceans on the multi-decadal GW rates.
“After describing his interactions with the alleged shooter, DeSantis said, “We received a message expressing approval of what had happened and just hoping that Donald Trump would be next. And another one of my colleagues received an email saying one down, 217 more to go. and other colleagues have received other things.” ” click here
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“A global warming research study in Canada has been cancelled because of “unprecedented” thick summer ice.
Naturally, the scientist in charge has blamed it on ‘climate change.’ “ click here
“James T. Hodgkinson, the Illinois man identified as the would-be killer who wounded several at a practice session of the Congressional Republican baseball team, had a history of violence, supporting progressive causes, and voting for Democrats at least as far back as the year 2002.” click here
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McKitrick, Ross. A Critical Review of Global Surface Temperature Data Products (August 5, 2010). https://ssrn.com/abstract=1653928 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1653928
There are three main global temperature histories: the combined CRU-Hadley record (HADCRU), the NASA-GISS (GISTEMP) record, and the NOAA record. All three global averages depend on the same underlying land data archive, the Global Historical Climatology Network (GHCN). Because of this reliance on GHCN, its quality deficiencies will constrain the quality of all derived products.
The number of weather stations providing data to GHCN plunged in 1990 and again in 2005. The sample size has fallen by over 75% from its peak in the early 1970s, and is now smaller than at any time since 1919. The collapse in sample size has increased the relative fraction of data coming from airports to about 50 percent (up from about 30 percent in the 1970s). It has also reduced the average latitude of source data and removed relatively more high-altitude monitoring sites.
Oceanic data are based on sea surface temperature (SST) rather than marine air temperature (MAT). All three global products rely on SST series derived from the ICOADS archive. ICOADS observations were primarily obtained from ships that voluntarily monitored SST. Prior to the post-war era, coverage of the southern oceans and polar regions was very thin. Coverage has improved partly due to deployment of buoys, as well as use of satellites to support extrapolation. Ship-based readings changed over the 20th century from bucket-and-thermometer to engine-intake methods, leading to a warm bias as the new readings displaced the old. Until recently it was assumed that bucket methods disappeared after 1941, but this is now believed not to be the case, which may necessitate a major revision to the 20th century ocean record. There is evidence that SST trends overstate nearby MAT trends.
The quality of data over land, namely the raw temperature data in GHCN, depends on the validity of adjustments for known problems due to urbanization and land-use change. The adequacy of these adjustments has been tested in three different ways, with two of the three finding evidence that they do not suffice to remove warming biases.
The overall conclusion of this report is that there are serious quality problems in the surface temperature data sets that call into question whether the global temperature history, especially over land, can be considered both continuous and precise. Users should be aware of these limitations, especially in policy-sensitive applications.
“It has taken far too long, but the self-correcting mechanisms of science finally are contradicting the global warming fraud. Despite billions of dollars of grants for those who support the so-called “consensus” (itself, a lie), and the fear of retaliation, scholars interested in the truth are publishing a wave of scientific papers contradicting the orthodoxy.” click here
Hema Bisht, Bimal Pande, Ramesh Chandra, and Seema Pande. Statistical study of different solar activity features with total column ozone at two hill stations of Uttarakhand. Indian Journal of Radio and Space Physics. Vol. 43,
August-October 2014, pp 251-262.
This paper presents a statistical study of different solar activity features (DSAF), viz. sunspot number (SN), solar active prominences (SAP), solar flares (SF) and solar proton events (SPE) with total column ozone (TCO) amount using 28 years (1986-2013) data. The ozone data has been taken for two hill stations in Uttarakhand, viz. Nainital (29deg 23min N, 79deg 27min E) and Mussoorie (30deg 27min N, 78deg 06min E). The study reveals a positive correlation between yearly averaged TCO and DSAF. The value of linear correlation coefficient (r) for TCO-Nainital with SN, SAP, SF, and SPE is found to be 0.51, 0.30, 0.49, and 0.54, respectively and for TCO-Mussoorie with SN, SAP, SF, SPE is found to be 0.45, 0.27, 0.44, and 0.51, respectively. This supports the fact that solar activity features contribute to the production of ozone. Also the trend in TCO over both the stations annually, monthly and seasonally has been studied. A negative trend is observed indicating a decrease in the ozone concentration over these stations in given time period.