Chen Z, Yu D, He S, Ye H, Zhang L, Wen Y, Zhang W, Shu L, Chen S. Prevalence of Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Drinking Water Sources in Hangzhou City. Front Microbiol. 2017 Jun 16;8:1133. doi: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01133. eCollection 2017.
This study investigated the distribution of antibiotic resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli) and examined the possible relationship between water quality parameters and antibiotic resistance from two different drinking water sources (the Qiantang River and the Dongtiao Stream) in Hangzhou city of China. E. coli isolates were tested for their susceptibility to 18 antibiotics. Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (TE), followed by ampicillin (AM), piperacillin (PIP), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT), and chloramphenicol (C). The antibiotic resistance rate of E. coli isolates from two water sources was similar; For E. coli isolates from the Qiantang River, their antibiotic resistance rates decreased from up- to downstream. Seasonally, the dry and wet season had little impact on antibiotic resistance. Spearman’s rank correlation revealed significant correlation between resistance to TE and phenicols or ciprofloxacin (CIP), as well as quinolones (ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) and cephalosporins or gentamicin (GM). Pearson’s chi-square tests found certain water parameters such as nutrient concentration were strongly associated with resistance to some of the antibiotics. In addition, tet genes were detected from all 82 TE-resistant E. coli isolates, and most of the isolates (81.87%) contained multiple tet genes, which displayed 14 different combinations. Collectively, this study provided baseline data on antibiotic resistance of drinking water sources in Hangzhou city, which indicates drinking water sources could be the reservoir of antibiotic resistance, potentially presenting a public health risk.
Nguyen Dang Giang C, Sebesvari Z, Renaud F, Rosendahl I, Hoang Minh Q, Amelung W. Occurrence and Dissipation of the Antibiotics Sulfamethoxazole, Sulfadiazine, Trimethoprim, and Enrofloxacin in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 2;10(7):e0131855. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0131855.
The Mekong Delta in Vietnam has seen a rapid development and intensification of aquaculture in the last decades, with a corresponding widespread use of antibiotics. This study provides information on current antibiotic use in freshwater aquaculture, as well as on resulting antibiotic concentrations in the aquatic environment of the Mekong Delta. Two major production steps, fish hatcheries and mature fish cultivation, were surveyed (50 fish farm interviews) for antibiotic use. Different water sources, including surface water, groundwater and piped water (164 water samples) were systematically screened for antibiotic residues. To better understand antibiotic fate under tropical conditions, the dissipation behavior of selected antibiotics in the aquatic environment was investigated for the first time in mesocosm experiments. None of the investigated antibiotics were detected in groundwater and piped water samples. Surface water, which is still often used for drinking and domestic purposes by local populations, contained median concentrations of 21 ng L-1 sulfamethoxazole (SMX), 4 ng L-1 sulfadiazine (SDZ), 17 ng L-1 trimethoprim (TRIM), and 12 ng L-1 enrofloxacin (ENRO). These concentrations were lower than the predicted no effect concentrations (PNECs) and minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), suggesting limited antibiotic-related risk to aquatic ecosystems in the monitored systems. The dissipation half-lives of the studied antibiotics ranged from <1 to 44 days, depending on the availability of sunlight and sediment. Among the studied antibiotics TRIM was the most persistent in water systems. TRIM was not susceptible to photodegradation, while the dissipation of ENRO and SDZ was influenced by photolysis. The recorded dissipation models gave good predictions of the occurrence and concentrations of TRIM, ENRO and SDZ in surface water. In summary, the currently measured concentrations of the investigated antibiotics are unlikely to cause immediate risks to the aquatic environment, yet the persistence of these antibiotics is of concern and might lead to chronic exposure of aquatic organisms as well as humans.
Tang J, Shi T, Wu X, Cao H, Li X, Hua R, Tang F, Yue Y. The occurrence and distribution of antibiotics in Lake Chaohu, China: Seasonal variation, potential source and risk assessment. Chemosphere. 2014 Dec 2. pii: S0045-6535(14)01350-2. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.11.032.
The distribution and seasonal variation of fifteen antibiotics belonging to three classes (sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones and tetracyclines) were investigated in Lake Chaohu, China. The concentrations of the selected antibiotics in the surface water, eight major inflowing rivers and sewage treatment plant (STP) samples were analyzed by UPLC-MS/MS. The results indicated that sulfamethoxazole and ofloxacin were the predominant antibiotics, with maximum concentrations of 95.6 and 383.4ngL-1, respectively, in the river samples. In Lake Chaohu, the western inflowing rivers (the Nanfei and Shiwuli Rivers) were the primary import routes for the antibiotics, and the domestic effluent from four STPs were considered the primary source of the antibiotics. The level of antibiotics in Lake Chaohu clearly varied with seasonal changes, and the highest detectable frequencies and mean concentrations were found during the winter. The quality of water downstream of Lake Chaohu was influenced by the lake, and the results of risk assessment of the antibiotics on aquatic organisms suggested that sulfamethoxazole, ofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin in the surface water of Lake Chaohu and inflowing rivers might pose a high risk to algae and plants.
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