Tag Archives: Argentina

Urban surface temperature increases due to urban heat island effect

Child Exposure to Fluoride, Northern Argentina

Rocha RA, Calatayud M, Devesa V, Vélez D. Evaluation of exposure to fluoride in child population of North Argentina. Environmental science and pollution research international. 2017 Aug 8. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9010-9.

Fluoride is an important element for humans. It inhibits initiation and progression of dental caries and stimulates bone formation. However, excessive intake may lead to the appearance of dental and/or skeletal fluorosis and a decrease in intellectual coefficient in child populations. This study evaluates exposure to fluoride in the child population of Chaco province (Argentina) by analysis of drinking water, food and its bioaccessible fraction (quantity of fluoride solubilised by gastrointestinal digestion and available for intestinal absorption) and urine as a biomarker of internal dose. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varied between 0.050 and 4.6 mg L-1, and 80% of the samples exceeded the WHO drinking-water guideline value (1.5 mg L-1). Fluoride concentrations in food ranged between 0.80 and 3.0 mg kg-1 fresh weight (fw), being lower in bioaccessible fraction (0.43-1.9 mg kg-1, fw). On the basis of the consumption data declared for the young child population, fluoride intake varies between 4.1 and 6.5 mg day-1, greater than the level recommended for this age group. Moreover, in some cases, concentrations of fluoride found in urine (0.62-8.9 mg L-1) exceeded those reported in areas with declared fluorosis. All data obtained show the worrying situation of child population in this area of Argentina.

Microbial Risk Assessment for Drinking Water Regulation, Argentina

Rodriguez-Alvarez MS, Weir MH, Pope JM, Seghezzo L,  Rajal VB,  Salusso MM, Moraña LB. Development of a relative risk model for drinking water regulation and design recommendations for a peri urban region of Argentina. International Journal Of Hygiene And Environmental Health. 2015 Oct; Vol. 218 (7), pp. 627-38. 

Argentina is a developing Latin American nation that has an aim of achieving the United Nations Millennium Development Goals for potable water supplies. Their current regulations however, limit the continued development of improved potable water quality and infrastructure from a microbiological viewpoint. This is since the current regulations are focused solely to pathogenic Eschericia coli (E. coli), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and fecal indicators. Regions of lower socioeconomic status such as peri-urban areas are particularly at risk due to lessened financial and political ability to influence their environmental quality and infrastructure needs. Therefore, a combined microbiological sampling, analysis and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) modeling effort were engaged for a peri-urban area of Salta Argentina. Drinking water samples from home taps were analyzed and a QMRA model was developed, results of which were compared against a general 1:10,000 risk level for lack of a current Argentinian standard. This QMRA model was able to demonstrate that the current regulations were being achieved for E. coli but were less than acceptable for P. aeruginosa in some instances. Appropriate health protections are far from acceptable for Giardia for almost all water sources. Untreated water sources were sampled and analyzed then QMRA modeled as well, since a significant number of the community (∼9%) still use them for potable water supplies. For untreated water E. coli risks were near 1:10,000, however, P. aeruginosa and Giardia risks failed to be acceptable in almost all instances. The QMRA model and microbiological analyses demonstrate the need for improved regulatory efforts for the peri-urban area along with improved investment in their water infrastructure.