C.A. Chapa-Martínez, L. Hinojosa-Reyes, A. Hernández-Ramírez, E. Ruiz-Ruiz, L. Maya-Treviño, J.L. Guzmán-Mar. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water. Science of The Total Environment, Volume 565, 15 September 2016, Pages 511-518.
The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 23 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.
Sharma B, Kaur S. Microbial evaluation of bottled water marketed in North India. Indian journal of public health. 2015 Oct-Dec;59(4):299-301. doi: 10.4103/0019-557X.169660.
Drinking unsafe and unhygienic water can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid. The present study describes the microbial evaluation of bottled water sold in North India. The samples were analyzed for total viable count and coliforms and susceptibility to different antibiotics. Though free of coliforms, the samples had a total viable count ranging from 0.01 × 10 1 cfu/mL to 2.40 × 10 3 cfu/mL and in 17% of the samples, total viable count was much higher than specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), Government of India. Among the samples, 6.5% also showed fungal growth. On checking the sensitivity of bacteria isolates to different antibiotics, most of the strains were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. It can thus be concluded that the consumption of bottled water with a high viable count and that was bacteria-resistant to different antibiotics may have an effect on the health of the consumers, especially immune-compromised individuals.
Happy Water….Lithium is a mineral with chemical salt properties that have been used since the 1940′s in drugs for the treatment of severe depression and bipolar disorder. But is it beneficial, or even safe, in drinking water? Click here for news article…..
8-year-old girl gets tongue stuck in water bottle….click here….
“Would you buy bottled water from Canandaigua Lake instead of Poland Springs? Canandaigua City officials are considering bottling lake water and selling it to the public.” Click here for news article….
Not a surprise, with activists such as Pacific Institute’s Peter Gleick across the bay in Oakland. San Francisco wants people to fill their water bottles with tap water, and not buy bottled water to save the planet from plastic. That’s fine. But consumers still choose to purchase bottle water, regardless of what the central planners (or politbureau members) want to force them to do…..providing safe drinking water is a service, but consumers still have a choice….
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This is typical….as energy costs go up….so does everything else, especially drinking water…..click here for news article….