Tag Archives: Campylobacter

Bacterial contamination of drinking water and health, Egypt

Ouf SA, Yehia RS, Ouf AS, Abdul-Rahim RF. Bacterial contamination and health risks of drinking water from the municipal non-government managed water treatment plants. Environmental monitoring and assessment. 2018 Oct 29;190(11):685. doi: 10.1007/s10661-018-7054-z.

Water quality and bacterial contamination from 18 drinking water municipal plants in three locations at Giza governorate were investigated. The average total count of bacteria detected after four stages of treatments in the investigated plants was 32 CFU/1 mL compared to 2330 cfu/mL for raw water, with a reduction percentage of 98.6. Although there is a relatively high removal percent of bacterial contamination from the water sources, however, several bacterial pathogens were identified in the produced water prepared for drinking including Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Shigella spp. After 3 days of water incubation at 30 °C, the amount of bacterial endotoxins ranged from 77 to 137 ng/mL in the water produced from the municipal plants compared to 621-1260 ng/mL for untreated water. The main diseases reported from patients attending different clinics and hospitals during summer 2014 at the surveyed locations and assuredly due to drinking water from these plants indicated that diarrheas and gastroenteritis due to E. coli and Campylobacter jejuni constituted 65.7% of the total patients followed by bacillary dysentery or shigellosis due to Shigella spp. (7.9%) and cholera due to Vibrio cholera (7.2%). There was an increase in serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as urea and creatinine values of guinea pigs consuming water produced from the non-governmental plants for 6 months indicating remarkable liver and kidney damages. Histological sections of liver and kidney from the tested animal revealed liver having ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes and distortion and fragmentation of the nuclei, while the section of the kidney showed irregularly distributed wrinkled cells, degenerated Bowman’s capsule, congested blood vessels, and inflammatory cells.

Sources of Campylobacter Exposure, Ontario, Canada

Pintar KD, Thomas KM, Christidis T, Otten A, Nesbitt A, Marshall B, Pollari, Hurst M, Ravel A. A Comparative Exposure Assessment of Campylobacter in Ontario, Canada. Risk analysis 2016 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/risa.12653.

To inform source attribution efforts, a comparative exposure assessment was developed to estimate the relative exposure to Campylobacter, the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Canada, for 13 different transmission routes within Ontario, Canada, during the summer. Exposure was quantified with stochastic models at the population level, which incorporated measures of frequency, quantity ingested, prevalence, and concentration, using data from FoodNet Canada surveillance, the peer-reviewed and gray literature, other Ontario data, and data that were specifically collected for this study. Models were run with @Risk software using Monte Carlo simulations. The mean number of cells of Campylobacter ingested per Ontarian per day during the summer, ranked from highest to lowest is as follows: household pets, chicken, living on a farm, raw milk, visiting a farm, recreational water, beef, drinking water, pork, vegetables, seafood, petting zoos, and fruits. The study results identify knowledge gaps for some transmission routes, and indicate that some transmission routes for Campylobacter are underestimated in the current literature, such as household pets and raw milk. Many data gaps were identified for future data collection consideration, especially for the concentration of Campylobacter in all transmission routes.

Campylobacter Outbreak Associated with a Community Water Supply

DeFraites RF, Sanchez JL, Brandt CA, Kadlec RP, Haberberger RL, Lin JJ, Taylor DN. An outbreak of Campylobacter enteritis associated with a community water supply on a U.S. military installation. MSMR. 2014 Nov;21(11):10-15.

An outbreak of acute gastroenteritis involving 249 persons, 32% of whom were hospitalized, occurred on a U.S. Army installation in 1990. Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from 81 of 163 (50%) persons cultured. Seventeen isolates of C. jejuni available for serotyping were Lior serotype 5. The outbreak remained restricted to one recruit barracks area and adjacent Junior Reserve Officer Training Corps cadet barracks. Infection of sequential cohorts of recruits over an interval of 3 weeks suggested a continuing or intermittent common source. Contaminated food was not implicated because affected persons ate at separate dining facilities and other facilities with the same food sources had no associated illnesses. There was a strong association between the amount of water consumed by recruits and risk of diarrhea (chi-square test for trend, p<0.001). Samples of drinking water collected in the affected area had no residual chlorine and when cultured yielded greater than 200 colonies of coliform bacteria per 100 mL of water sampled. Although Campylobacter was not isolated from water, living and dead birds were found in an elevated water storage tank providing drinking water to the affected area. This and other similar outbreaks indicate that contamination of water storage tanks can lead to large outbreaks of Campylobacter enteritis.

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