Tag Archives: China

China surface temperatures driven by natural forces

Long Li, Yong Zha. Satellite-based regional warming hiatus in China and its implication. Science of The Total Environment. Volume 648, 15 January 2019, Pages 1394-1402

The slowdown in global warming since 1998, often termed the global warming hiatus. Reconciling the “hiatus” is a main focus in the 2013 climate change conference. Accurately characterizing the spatiotemporal trends in surface air temperature (SAT) is helps to better understand the “hiatus” during the period. This article presents a satellite-based regional warming simulation to diagnose the “hiatus” for 2001–2015 in China. Results show that the rapid warming is mainly in western and southern China, such as Yunnan (mean ± standard deviation: 0.39 ± 0.26 °C (10 yr)−1), Tibet (0.22 ± 0.25 °C (10 yr)−1), Taiwan (0.21 ± 0.25 °C (10 yr)−1), and Sichuan (0.19 ± 0.25 °C (10 yr)−1). On the contrary, there is a cooling trend by 0.29 ± 0.26 °C (10 yr)−1 in northern China during the recent 15 yr, where a warming rate about 0.38 ± 0.11 °C (10 yr)−1 happened for 1960–2000. Overall, satellite simulation shows that the warming rate is reduced to −0.02 °C (10 yr)−1. The changes in underlying surface Earth’s orbit, solar radiation and atmospheric counter radiation (USEOSRACR) cause China’s temperature rise about 0.02 °C (10 yr)−1. A combination of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other natural forcing (ONAT, predominately volcanic activity, and atmosphere and ocean circulation) explain another part of temperature trend by approximately −0.04 °C (10 yr)−1. We conclude that there is a regional warming hiatus, a pause or a slowdown in China, and imply that GHGs-induced warming is suppressed by ONAT in the early 21st century.

Organophosphorus flame retardants in drinking water, Nanjing, China

Liu X, Xiong L, Li D, Chen C, Cao Q. Monitoring and exposure assessment of organophosphorus flame retardants in source and drinking water, Nanjing, China. Environ Monit Assess. 2019 Jan 31;191(2):119. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7239-0.

This study developed a new method to determine the residues of 13 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in drinking water by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technique and investigated the chemical distribution in water samples from municipal plants along the Yangtze River in Nanjing. The linear calibration correlation coefficients R2 for all 13 OPFRs were at least 0.998 0. Three levels of spiked test were performed. Most of the recoveries were in the range of 80~120%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the 13 OPFRs were 2.1~17% (n = 6). Five OPFRs were 100% positively detected in the samples, and 3 OPFRs were positively detected in some samples. The concentrations of detected OPFR in the water ranged from 0.7 to 5780.0 ng L-1. The average concentrations of OPFRs in wet season were higher than those in dry season, and the contaminants mainly originated from the source water in the Yangtze River. The exposure assessments of individual and total OPFRs were investigated. The estimated daily intakes of total OPFRs via ingestion of drinking water reached up to 64.8 and 45.2 ng/kg bw/day in dry and wet season, respectively. This study demonstrates a profile of OPFR distribution in Nanjing municipal water and provides information on human exposure assessment via drinking water in the Nanjing District, China.

Meeting China’s energy needs

“In an earlier GWPF report, I explained how the survival of the Chinese Communist Party necessitated ever-expanding use of fossil fuels to support improvements in the quality of life for the Chinese people and to deal with the air pollution that afflicted them. I predicted that China would not accept any agreement at the 2015 Paris climate conference that required it to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. This paper examines developments in Chinese energy policy since the conference.” click here

Microplastics in Danjiangkou Reservoir, China

Di M, Liu X, Wang W, Wang J. Manuscript prepared for submission to environmental toxicology and pharmacology pollution in drinking water source areas: Microplastics in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 2018 Dec 17;65:82-89. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2018.12.009.

As the source of water for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China, the water quality of the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR) is related to the safety of drinking water for billions of residents. Consequently, microplastics in surface water and sediment samples of the DJKR were investigated in this study. Microplastics were observed in all water and sediment samples with abundances varying from 467 to 15,017 n/m3 and 15 to 40 n/kg wet weight, respectively. Microplastics were rich in colour and dominated by fibrous items. Small-sized particles (< 2 mm) were more frequently observed than other sizes. Analysis by micro-Raman spectroscopy showed that polypropylene was the major polymer type. These systematic results demonstrated that the DJKR is suffering from the pollution of microplastics, which should be paid more attention based on its potential threat to the aquatic organisms and residents impacted by the drinking water source pollution.

Water demand framework case study, China

Yahua Wang, Tingting Wan, Cecilia Tortajada. Water Demand Framework and Water Development: The Case of China Water 2018, 10 (12), 1860 https://doi.org/10.3390/w10121860

Water resources management is increasingly important for sustainable economic and social development. A coherent division of the development stages is of primary importance for selecting and implementing related water resource management strategies. Using evolving supply–demand relationships, this paper proposes a framework that considers water development stages to present a series of dynamic relationships between water demand changes and overall economic development. The framework is applied to China to advance the understanding of how demand evolves at different stages of water resources development under specific socioeconomic circumstances, and of strategic choices in general. The case of China explains how water resources management has gradually improved during distinct socioeconomic development stages. It illustrates the varieties and effectiveness of water policies made to adapt to changing demand over the course of socioeconomic development. The framework can be potentially applied to other countries or regions to identify the development stage in order to select proper water management strategies.

Health risk assessment of NDMA in drinking water and food, China

Sang C, An W, Han M, Yang M. Health risk assessment on N-nitrosodimethylamine in drinking water and food in major cities of China with disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). Ecotoxicology and environmental safety. 2018 Dec 11;170:412-417. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.11.128.

In this study, a health risk assessment of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in drinking water and food was conducted using disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in major cities of China. Considering the numerous non-detected values found in drinking water samples, a zero-inflated model was employed to obtain a more precise NDMA concentration distribution function in drinking water. With exogenous chronic daily intake of 1.20 × 10-6 mg/(kg*d), the lifetime cancer risk and disability-adjusted life years of NDMA are 4.01 × 10-5 and 5.52 × 10-6 per person-year (ppy). The disease burden attributable to water sources accounts for nearly 9.94% of total exogenous intake. The contribution rate of vegetables is the largest, followed by cereals, milk products, fish and shrimp, and meat. Taking endogenous sources into consideration, the contribution rates of drinking water and food sources decrease to 0.08% and 0.69%. This study provides a scientific basis for making policy decisions on NDMA pollution management.

Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau

Qu B, Zhang Y, Kang S, Sillanpää M. Water quality in the Tibetan Plateau: Major ions and trace elements in rivers of the “Water Tower of Asia”. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Aug 25;649:571-581. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.08.316.

As the “Water Tower of Asia”, rivers originating from the Tibetan Plateau provide water resources for more than one billion residents in both its local and surrounding areas. With respect to the essential role that this region plays in terms of water resources in Asia, we provide an overview of the mechanisms governing the water quality, including the major ions and trace elements release, in eleven rivers of the Tibetan Plateau. Overall, the rivers running on the Tibetan Plateau reflect an alkaline aquatic environment, with an average pH of 8.5; and the total dissolved solids (TDS, ~339 mg L-1) are much higher than the global average value. Over 80% of the water ionic budget in the rivers of the plateau is comprised of Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3- and SO42-. The main mechanisms that control the river water chemistry on the Tibetan Plateau are natural processes and present a visible spatial heterogeneity. For instance, in rivers of the southern Tibetan Plateau, the water quality is mainly controlled by the rock-weathering, while rivers of the central and northern Tibetan Plateau are also largely affected by evaporation-crystallization processes. In general, most of the rivers on the Tibetan Plateau are uncontaminated and still in a pristine condition. However, it should be noted that due to the natural process such as rock-weathering and groundwater leaching, and anthropogenic activities such as urbanization and mining operations, the concentrations of several toxic elements (e.g., As, Cd, Pb, Mn, Hg and Tl) in some of the basins are higher than the China national standard (GB) and the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. With increasing anthropogenic activities on the plateau and changes in the river basins, it is necessary to conduct the long-term monitoring of the river water chemistry of this climate-sensitive and eco-fragile region.