Doré E, Deshommes E, Laroche L, Nour S, Prévost M. Lead and copper release from full and partially replaced harvested lead service lines: Impact of stagnation time prior to sampling and water quality. Water Research 2018 Dec 3;150:380-391. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2018.11.076.
Partial lead service line replacement (PLSLR) results in the addition of a new galvanic connection and can increase lead concentrations at the tap. Focus has been given to minimizing lead release after PLSLR, but little information is available on the impact of lead remedial actions on copper concentrations, especially before passivation occurs. The impact of water quality (decreased chloride-to-sulfate mass ratio from 0.9 to 0.3; addition of orthoP; pH increase to 8.3) on lead and copper concentrations was investigated after stagnation (30 min-336 h) in a pipe rig comparing full lead service line (LSL), and two configurations of partial LSLs (Cu-Pb and Pb-Cu). Results show different trends for lead and copper: maximum lead concentrations were reached in 16 h while copper concentrations continued to increase over 336 h. Lead release rates were also the highest in the first 16 h of stagnation and were strongly impacted by water quality and the configuration of PLSLR (Cu-Pb vs Pb-Cu). Increasing the sampling flow rate from 5 to 15 LPM drastically increased the particulate lead release (78-fold) in Pb-Cu configurations; this effect was however not observed in 100% Pb or Cu-Pb configurations. High velocity flushing prior to 16 h stagnation decreased total Pb release by a factor of 12-fold for Cu-Pb, 1.6-fold for Pb-Cu and 2.0-fold for 100% Pb. Results support the definition of sampling protocols targeted for the detection of lead and copper sources and the proscription of flushing prior to sampling.
Inkinen J, Jayaprakash B, Ahonen M, Pitkänen T, Mäkinen R, Pursiainen A, Santo Domingo JW, Salonen H, Elk M, Keinänen-Toivola MM. Bacterial community changes in copper and PEX drinking water pipeline biofilms under extra disinfection and magnetic water treatment. Journal of applied microbiology. 2017 Dec 9. doi: 10.1111/jam.13662.
AIMS: To study stability of biofilms and water quality in pilot scale drinking water copper and PEX pipes in changing conditions (extra disinfection, magnetic water treatment MWT).
METHODS AND RESULTS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 16S ribosomal RNA genes (rDNA) to describe total bacterial community and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) to describe active bacterial members in addition to traditional microbiological methods were applied. Biofilms from control copper and PEX pipes shared same most abundant bacteria (Methylobacterium spp., Sphingomonas spp., Zymomonas spp.) and average species diversities (Shannon 3.8-4.2) in rDNA and rRNA libraries whereas few of the taxa differed by their abundance such as lower total Mycobacterium spp. occurrence in copper (<0.02%) to PEX (<0.2%) pipes. Extra disinfection (total chlorine increase from ca. 0.5 to 1 mg l-1 ) affected total and active population in biofilms seen as decrease of many bacterial species and diversity (Shannon 2.7, P < 0.01, rRNA) and increase of Sphingomonas spp. as compared to control samples. Further, extra disinfected copper and PEX samples formed separate clusters in unweighted non-metric multidimensional scaling plot (rRNA) similarly to MWT-treated biofilms of copper (but not PEX) pipes that instead showed higher species diversity (Shannon 4.8, P < 0.05 interaction).
CONCLUSIONS: Minor chlorine dose addition increased selection pressure and many species were sensitive to chlorination. Pipe material seemed to affect mycobacteria occurrence, and bacterial communities with MWT in copper but not in PEX pipes.
SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: This study using rRNA showed that chlorination affects especially active fraction of bacterial communities. Copper and PEX differed by the occurrence of some bacterial members despite similar community profiles.
Brewer GJ. The Copper-2 Hypothesis for Causation of the Current Alzheimer’s Disease Epidemic. Chem Res Toxicol. 2017 Feb 6. doi: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.6b00373.
Alzheimer’s disease, the most common cause of dementia, is at epidemic proportions (15 to 44% depending on age, of those age 65 to 84) in the U.S. and other developed countries, but remains relatively rare in undeveloped countries. Surprisingly, solid historical data reveals the epidemic is a creature of the last century. That is the disease was also rare in developed countries, until the 20th century. It is disappointing that these historical and demographic facts have been ignored by the Alzheimer’s disease scientific community. Disappointing because these facts clearly point at an environmental change in the 20th century in developed countries as a major factor in causing the epidemic. Some scientists have discarded the claimed rarity of the disease in the 19th century as incorrect, saying that Alzheimer’s disease is a disease of aging, and the increasing lifespan of people accounts for the current high prevalence of the disease. But this cavalier attitude ignores historical data indicating there were many elderly people in the 19th century that weren’t getting Alzheimer’s disease with any significant frequency. In this review, after documenting that the observed assertions about historical and demographic facts are correct, evidence is amassed that the main environmental culprit causing the Alzheimer’s epidemic is ingestion of divalent copper, or copper-2. The two sources of copper-2 ingestion are drinking water and multimineral supplement pills containing copper. The increase in copper plumbing use in developed countries parallels the increasing prevalence of Alzheimer’s disease. It has been shown that enough copper is leached from copper plumbing in most households to cause Alzheimer’s disease, using the Alzheimer’s disease animal model studies as a guide to toxic levels. It is relatively easy to avoid or greatly diminish copper-2 ingestion by not using copper containing supplement pills, and testing drinking water for copper levels. If the copper in water is too high, a simple device can be put on the tap to remove copper.
Brewer GJ Divalent Copper as a Major Triggering Agent in Alzheimer’s Disease. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease 2015 Apr 8.
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is at epidemic proportions in developed countries, with a steady increase in the early 1900 s, and then exploding over the last 50 years. This epidemiology points to something causative in the environment of developed countries. This paper will review the considerable evidence that that something could be inorganic copper ingestion. The epidemic parallels closely the spread of copper plumbing, with copper leached from the plumbing intodrinking water being a main causal feature, aided by the increasingly common use of supplement pills containing copper. Inorganic copper is divalent copper, or copper-2, while we now know that organic copper, or copper in foods, is primarily monovalent copper, or copper-1. The intestinal transport system, Ctr1, absorbs copper-1 and the copper moves to the liver, where it is put into safe channels. Copper-2 is not absorbed by Ctr1, and some of it bypasses the liver and goes directly into the blood, where it appears to be exquisitely toxic to brain cognition. Thus, while aggregation of amyloid-β has been postulated to be the cause of AD under current dogma, the great increase in prevalence over the last century appears to be due to ingestion of copper-2, which may be causing the aggregation, and/or increasing the oxidant toxicity of the aggregates. An alternative hypothesis proposes that oxidant stress is the primary injuring agent, and under this hypothesis, copper-2 accumulation in the brain may be a causal factor of the oxidant injury. Thus, irrespective of which hypothesis is correct, AD can be classified, at least in part, as a copper-2 toxicity disease. It is relatively easy to avoid copper-2 ingestion, as discussed in this review. If most people begin avoiding copper-2 ingestion, perhaps the epidemic of this serious disease can be aborted.
Click here for full paper (fee).
A very interesting hypothesis indeed, but only that at this point….a hypothesis.
Brewer, G.J. Copper toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease: Cognitive loss from ingestion of inorganic copper. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012 Jun 4.
Abstract: In this review I present the hypothesis that a toxic substance, inorganic copper, ingested from drinking water and vitamin/mineral supplements containing inorganic copper, is at least partially causal of the epidemic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) we are seeing in developed countries. I set the stage for this hypothesis by pointing out that the epidemic is a new disease phenomenon coinciding temporally with the use of copper plumbing in developed countries. The evidence is good that AD was nonexistent or rare in the 1800s and early 1900s, and the arguments that elderly people did not exist in those times, or that AD was simply attributed to senility, are refuted. The web of evidence tying ingestion of inorganic copper as a causal factor in AD is strong, and includes AD animal model data where trace amounts of inorganic copper in the drinking water markedly worsened AD, human studies where ingestion of copper supplements, along with a high fat diet, is associated with a marked loss of cognition, human studies showing a markedly higher mortality in elderly women ingesting copper supplements, as well as other data. It is likely that a high fat diet works in conjunction with ingestion of inorganic copper to increase the risk of AD. It is clear that some factor toxic to the brain is present in the environment in developed countries, but not undeveloped countries, and is a major risk factor for AD. I believe that that toxic factor is ingestion of inorganic copper.
Amston Lake water system in Hebron, Lebanon and Colchester should not drink water from the tap due to elevated levels of copper in the drinking water….click here….
This is an interesting article describing impacts expected from the development of a copper mine in Afghanistan…..but I see no mention of the impact such a mine development would have on the country’s water resources? Click here. What priority will be given to the people for drinking water compared to the mine?