Ryberg EC, Chu C, Kim JH. Edible Dye-Enhanced Solar Disinfection with Safety Indication. Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Nov 20;52(22):13361-13369. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b03866.
The rural developing world faces disproportional inequity in drinking water access, where point-of-use water treatment technologies often fail to achieve adequate levels of pathogen removal, especially for viruses. Solar disinfection (SODIS) is practiced because of its universal applicability and low implementation cost, though the excessively long treatment time and lack of safety indication hinder wider implementation. This study presents an enhanced SODIS scheme that utilizes erythrosine-a common food dye-as a photosensitizer to produce singlet oxygen for virus inactivation and to indicate the completion of water disinfection through photobleaching color change. Experimental results and predictions based on global solar irradiance data suggest that over 99.99% inactivation could be achieved within 5 min in the majority of developing countries, reducing the time for SODIS by 2 orders of magnitude. Preserving the low cost of traditional SODIS, erythrosine embodies edible dye-enhanced SODIS, an efficient water disinfection method that could potentially be used by governments and non-governmental organizations to improve drinking water quality in rural developing communities.
Garcia MA, Anderson MA. The Henry’s constant of monochloramine. Chemosphere. 2017 Oct 30;192:244-249. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.10.157.
Monochloramine is a secondary disinfectant used in drinking water and is also formed in chlorinated wastewater. While known to hydrolyze over time and react with dissolved organic matter, its partitioning between the aqueous and gas phase has not been extensively studied. Preliminary experiments demonstrated that monochloramine concentrations in solutions open to the atmosphere or actively aerated decreased more rapidly than in sealed solutions, indicating significant losses to the atmosphere. For example, a monochloramine solution open to the atmosphere yielded a loss rate constant of 0.08 d-1, a value twice that for sealed samples without headspace (0.04 d-1) where loss occurs exclusively as a result of hydrolysis. A solution aerated at 10 mL s-1 had a loss rate constant nearly 10× greater than that for hydrolysis alone (0.35 d-1). To better understand partitioning of monochloramine to the gas phase and potential for volatilization, the dimensionless Henry’s law constants of monochloramine (KH) were determined using an equilibrium headspace technique at five different temperatures (11, 16, 21, 27, and 32 °C). The resulting values ranged from 8 × 10-3 to 4 × 10-2, indicating a semi-volatile compound, and were found to be consistent with quantitative structure activity relationship predictions. At 20 °C, monochloramine exhibits a dimensionless Henry’s constant of about 1.7 × 10-2 which is 35 times greater than ammonia but comparable to the Henry’s constant of inorganic semi-volatile compounds such sulfur dioxide. The Henry’s constant values for monochloramine suggests that volatilization could be a relevant loss process in open systems such as rivers receiving chlorinated wastewater effluent, swimming pools and cooling towers.
Nie X, Liu W, Zhang L, Liu Q. Genotoxicity of drinking water treated with different disinfectants and effects of disinfection conditions detected by umu-test. Journal of environmental sciences (China). 2017 Jun;56:36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.07.016.
The genotoxicity of drinking water treated with 6 disinfection methods and the effects of disinfection conditions were investigated using the umu-test. The pretreatment procedure of samples for the umu-test was optimized for drinking water analysis. The results of the umu-test were in good correlation with those of the Ames-test. The genotoxicity and production of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the highest for chlorinated samples. UV+chloramination is the safest disinfection method from the aspects of genotoxicity, HAA production and inactivation effects. For chloramination, the effects of the mass ratio of Cl2 to N of chloramine on genotoxicity were also studied. The changes of genotoxicity were different from those of HAA production, which implied that HAA production cannot represent the genotoxic potential of water. The genotoxicity per chlorine decay of chlorination and chloramination had similar trends, indicating that the reaction of organic matters and chlorine made a great contribution to the genotoxicity. The results of this study are of engineering significance for optimizing the operation of waterworks.
Zhang Evan G R Davies James Bolton Yang Liu Q. Monochloramine loss mechanisms in tap water. Water Environ Res. 2017 Mar 1. doi: 10.2175/106143017X14902968254421.
Chloramination has been widely applied for drinking water disinfection, with monochloramine (NH₂Cl) the dominant chloramine species. However, under neutral pH, NH₂Cl can autodecompose and react with chemical components in drinking water, thus decreasing disinfection efficiency. In tap water, the NH₂Cl loss rate can be influenced by temperature, pH, Cl/N molar ratio, the initial NH₂Cl concentration and the natural organic matter (NOM) concentration. A good prediction of NH2Cl loss can assist in the operation of drinking water treatment plants. In this research, a kinetic rate constant (k_docr=(3.57 ± 0.54)×〖10〗^6 〖 M〗^(-1) h^(-1)) and a reactive site fraction (S = 0.43 ± 0.06) for the reaction between free chlorine released from NH₂Cl autodecoposition and tap water NOM were derived from a kinetic model to predict the NH₂Cl loss under various conditions. A temperature-dependent model was also developed. The model predictions match well with the experimental results, which demonstrates the validity of the model and provides a convenient and accurate method for NH₂Cl loss calculations.
Elmaksoud SA, Patel N, Maxwell SL, Sifuentes LY, Gerba CP. Use of household bleach for emergency disinfection of drinking water. Journal of Environmental Health. 2014 May;76(9):22-5.
Household bleach is typically used as a disinfectant for water in times of emergencies and by those engaging in recreational activities such as camping or rafting. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend a concentration of free chlorine of 1 mg/L for 30 minutes, or about 0.75 mL (1/8 teaspoon) of household bleach per gallon of water. The goal of the study described in this article was to assess two household bleach products to kill waterborne bacteria and viruses using the test procedures in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Guide Standard and Protocol for Testing Microbiological Purifiers. Bleach was found to meet these requirements in waters of low turbidity and organic matter. While the test bacterium was reduced by six logs in high turbid and organic-laden waters, the test viruses were reduced only by one-half to one log. In such waters greater chlorine doses or contact times are needed to achieve greater reduction of viruses.
McGuigan KG, Conroy RM, Mosler HJ, du Preez M, Ubomba-Jaswa E, Fernandez-Ibañez P. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): a review from bench-top to roof-top. Journal Of Hazardous Materials 2012 Oct 15; Vol. 235-236, pp. 29-46
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact.
Levy K, Anderson L, Robb KA, Cevallos W, Trueba G, Eisenberg JN. Household effectiveness vs. laboratory efficacy of point-of-use chlorination. Water Research. 2014 May 1;54:69-77. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.037.
Treatment of water at the household level offers a promising approach to combat the global burden of diarrheal diseases. In particular, chlorination of drinking water has been a widely promoted strategy due to persistence of residual chlorine after initial treatment. However, the degree to which chlorination can reduce microbial levels in a controlled setting (efficacy) or in a household setting (effectiveness) can vary as a function of chlorine characteristics, source water characteristics, and household conditions. To gain more understanding of these factors, we carried out an observational study within households in rural communities of northern coastal Ecuador. We found that the efficacy of chlorine treatment under controlled conditions was significantly better than its household effectiveness when evaluated both by ability to meet microbiological safety standards and by log reductions. Water treated with chlorine achieved levels of microbial contamination considered safe for human consumption after 24 h of storage in the household only 39-51% of the time, depending on chlorine treatment regimen. Chlorine treatment would not be considered protective against diarrheal disease according to WHO log reduction standards. Factors that explain the observed compromised effectiveness include: source water turbidity, source water baseline contamination levels, and in-home contamination. Water in 38% of the households that had low turbidity source water (<10 NTU) met the safe water standard as compared with only 17% of the households that had high turbidity source water (>10 NTU). A 10 MPN/100 mL increase in baseline Escherichia coli levels was associated with a 2.2% increase in failure to meet the E. coli standard. Higher mean microbial contamination levels were seen in 54% of household samples in comparison to their matched controls, which is likely the result of in-home contamination during storage. Container characteristics (size of the container mouth) did not influence chlorine effectiveness. We found no significant differences between chlorine treatment regimens in ability to meet the safe water standards or in overall log reductions, although chlorine dosage did modify the effect of source conditions. These results underscore the importance of measuring both source water and household conditions to determine appropriate chlorine levels, as well as to evaluate the appropriateness of chlorine treatment and other point-of-use water quality improvement interventions.
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