Zhang Evan G R Davies James Bolton Yang Liu Q. Monochloramine loss mechanisms in tap water. Water Environ Res. 2017 Mar 1. doi: 10.2175/106143017X14902968254421.
Chloramination has been widely applied for drinking water disinfection, with monochloramine (NH₂Cl) the dominant chloramine species. However, under neutral pH, NH₂Cl can autodecompose and react with chemical components in drinking water, thus decreasing disinfection efficiency. In tap water, the NH₂Cl loss rate can be influenced by temperature, pH, Cl/N molar ratio, the initial NH₂Cl concentration and the natural organic matter (NOM) concentration. A good prediction of NH2Cl loss can assist in the operation of drinking water treatment plants. In this research, a kinetic rate constant (k_docr=(3.57 ± 0.54)×〖10〗^6 〖 M〗^(-1) h^(-1)) and a reactive site fraction (S = 0.43 ± 0.06) for the reaction between free chlorine released from NH₂Cl autodecoposition and tap water NOM were derived from a kinetic model to predict the NH₂Cl loss under various conditions. A temperature-dependent model was also developed. The model predictions match well with the experimental results, which demonstrates the validity of the model and provides a convenient and accurate method for NH₂Cl loss calculations.
Elmaksoud SA, Patel N, Maxwell SL, Sifuentes LY, Gerba CP. Use of household bleach for emergency disinfection of drinking water. Journal of Environmental Health. 2014 May;76(9):22-5.
Household bleach is typically used as a disinfectant for water in times of emergencies and by those engaging in recreational activities such as camping or rafting. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend a concentration of free chlorine of 1 mg/L for 30 minutes, or about 0.75 mL (1/8 teaspoon) of household bleach per gallon of water. The goal of the study described in this article was to assess two household bleach products to kill waterborne bacteria and viruses using the test procedures in the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Guide Standard and Protocol for Testing Microbiological Purifiers. Bleach was found to meet these requirements in waters of low turbidity and organic matter. While the test bacterium was reduced by six logs in high turbid and organic-laden waters, the test viruses were reduced only by one-half to one log. In such waters greater chlorine doses or contact times are needed to achieve greater reduction of viruses.
McGuigan KG, Conroy RM, Mosler HJ, du Preez M, Ubomba-Jaswa E, Fernandez-Ibañez P. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): a review from bench-top to roof-top. Journal Of Hazardous Materials 2012 Oct 15; Vol. 235-236, pp. 29-46
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact.
Levy K, Anderson L, Robb KA, Cevallos W, Trueba G, Eisenberg JN. Household effectiveness vs. laboratory efficacy of point-of-use chlorination. Water Research. 2014 May 1;54:69-77. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.037.
Treatment of water at the household level offers a promising approach to combat the global burden of diarrheal diseases. In particular, chlorination of drinking water has been a widely promoted strategy due to persistence of residual chlorine after initial treatment. However, the degree to which chlorination can reduce microbial levels in a controlled setting (efficacy) or in a household setting (effectiveness) can vary as a function of chlorine characteristics, source water characteristics, and household conditions. To gain more understanding of these factors, we carried out an observational study within households in rural communities of northern coastal Ecuador. We found that the efficacy of chlorine treatment under controlled conditions was significantly better than its household effectiveness when evaluated both by ability to meet microbiological safety standards and by log reductions. Water treated with chlorine achieved levels of microbial contamination considered safe for human consumption after 24 h of storage in the household only 39-51% of the time, depending on chlorine treatment regimen. Chlorine treatment would not be considered protective against diarrheal disease according to WHO log reduction standards. Factors that explain the observed compromised effectiveness include: source water turbidity, source water baseline contamination levels, and in-home contamination. Water in 38% of the households that had low turbidity source water (<10 NTU) met the safe water standard as compared with only 17% of the households that had high turbidity source water (>10 NTU). A 10 MPN/100 mL increase in baseline Escherichia coli levels was associated with a 2.2% increase in failure to meet the E. coli standard. Higher mean microbial contamination levels were seen in 54% of household samples in comparison to their matched controls, which is likely the result of in-home contamination during storage. Container characteristics (size of the container mouth) did not influence chlorine effectiveness. We found no significant differences between chlorine treatment regimens in ability to meet the safe water standards or in overall log reductions, although chlorine dosage did modify the effect of source conditions. These results underscore the importance of measuring both source water and household conditions to determine appropriate chlorine levels, as well as to evaluate the appropriateness of chlorine treatment and other point-of-use water quality improvement interventions.
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W Zhang, X Zhang. Adsorption of MS2 on oxide nanoparticles affects chlorine disinfection and solar inactivation Water Research 2015-02-01 69:59-67
Adsorption on colloidal particles is one of the environmental processes affecting fate, transport, viability or reproducibility of viruses. This work studied colloidal interactions (adsorption kinetics and isotherms) between different oxide nanoparticles (NPs) (i.e., TiO2, NiO, ZnO, SiO2, and Al2O3) and bacteriophage, MS2. The results shows that that all oxide NPs exhibited strong adsorption capacity for MS2, except SiO2 NPs, which is supported by the extended Derjaguin and Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (EDLVO) theory. Moreover, the implication of such colloidal interactions on water disinfection is manifested by the observations that the presence of TiO2 and ZnO NPs could enhance MS2 inactivation under solar irradiation, whereas NiO and SiO2 decreased MS2 inactivation. By contrast, all of these oxide NPs were found to mitigate chlorine disinfection against MS2 to different extent, and the shielding effect was probably caused by reduced free chlorine and free MS2 in the solution due to sorption onto NPs. Clearly, there is a pressing need to further understand colloidal interactions between engineered NPs and viruses in water to better improve the current water treatment processes and to develop novel nanomaterials for water disinfection.
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Pavlović MG, Pavlović MM, Pavlović MM, Nikolić ND. Electrochemical Removal of Microorganisms in Drinking Water. International Journal of Electrochemical Science; 2014, Vol. 9 Issue 12, p8249-8262
It is known that silver, even in small concentrations (hundred parts of milligrams per liter), has the ability to destroy microorganisms, i.e. it has strong bactericidal abilities. Cleansing vast amount of water using bactericidal ability of silver is usually performed in electrochemical way. The advantages of electrochemical disinfection process like: (a) environmental compatibility, (b) versatility to kill a wide variety of microorganisms under mild conditions, (c) no need for adding chemical medicines and (d) the benefits of in-situ generation greatly lower problems and dangers of usage gas chlorine in water disinfection, which is greatest during transport and storing of this disinfectant. Appliances for electrochemical disinfection of drinking water eliminate these faults of conventional disinfection methods. Medical researches show that excess of chlorine in water reacts with organic matter, leading to mutations and cancer formation in digestion organs and bladder. This paper represents research of successful microbiological disinfection of natural water that contains Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas aeruginisa, Sulfate-reducing clostridium, Streptococcus (F), Aeromonas, Citrobacter (F), Esherichia coli, Enterobacter (F) and Bacillus by water-disinfection appliance. This appliance can be used in water systems like water sorces, traps, reservoires, pools etc. (certificate of Clinical Center of Serbia).
K Lawrie, A Mills, M Figueredo-Fernández, S Gutiérrez-Alfaro, M Manzano, M Saladin. UV dosimetry for solar water disinfection (SODIS) carried out in different plastic bottles and bags. Sensors & Actuators B: Chemical. Mar2015, Vol. 208, p608-615.
Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a well-established inexpensive means of water disinfection in developing countries, but lacks an indicator to illustrate its end-point. A study of the solar UV dosage required for SODIS, in order to achieve a bacteria concentration below the detection limit for: Escherichia coli, Enterococcus spp. and Clostridium perfringens , in water in PET bottles, PE and PE/EVA bags showed disinfection to be most efficient in PE bags, with a solar UV (290–385 nm) dose of 389 kJ m −2 required. In parallel to the disinfection experiments, a range of polyoxometalate, semiconductor photocatalysis and photodegradable dye-based solar UV dosimeter indicators were tested under the same solar UV irradiation conditions. All three types of dosimeter produced indicators that largely and significantly change colour upon exposure to 389 kJ m −2 solar UV; further indicators are reported which change colour at higher doses and hence would be suitable for the less efficient SODIS containers tested. All indicators tested were robust, easy to use and inexpensive so as not to add significantly to the attractive low cost of SODIS. Furthermore, whilst semiconductor photocatalyst and photodegradable dye based indicators are disposable, one-use systems, the polyoxometalate based indicators recover colour in the dark overnight, allowing them to be reused, and hence further decreasing the cost of using indicators during the implementation of the SODIS method.
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