Krishna KumarYadav et al. Fluoride contamination, health problems and remediation methods in Asian groundwater: A comprehensive review. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety Volume 182, 30 October 2019, 109362
In low concentration, fluoride is considered a necessary compound for human health. Exposure to high concentrations of fluoride is the reason for a serious disease called fluorosis. Fluorosis is categorized as Skeletal and Dental fluorosis. Several Asian countries, such as India, face contamination of water resources with fluoride. In this study, a comprehensive overview on fluoride contamination in Asian water resources has been presented. Since water contamination with fluoride in India is higher than other Asian countries, a separate section was dedicated to review published articles on fluoride contamination in this country. The status of health effects in Asian countries was another topic that was reviewed in this study. The effects of fluoride on human organs/systems such as urinary, renal, endocrine, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, brain, and reproductive systems were another topic that was reviewed in this study. Different methods to remove fluoride from water such as reverse osmosis, electrocoagulation, nanoﬁltration, adsorption, ion-exchange and precipitation/coagulation were introduced in this study. Although several studies have been carried out on contamination of water resources with fluoride, the situation of water contamination with fluoride and newly developed technology to remove fluoride from water in Asian countries has not been reviewed. Therefore, this review is focused on these issues: 1) The status of fluoride contamination in Asian countries, 2) health effects of fluoride contamination in drinking water in Asia, and 3) the existing current technologies for defluoridation in Asia.
“The claim that aggressive climate change mitigation programs helps the poor is egregiously misleading. Modern coal plants are a success story, as pollutants emitted have fallen dramatically with technological improvements over the past several decades.”click here
Haishan Chen, Fangda Teng, Wanxin Zhang, Hong Liao. Impacts of Anomalous Midlatitude Cyclone Activity over East Asia during Summer on the Decadal Mode of East Asian Summer Monsoon and Its Possible Mechanism. Journal of Climate, 739-753. 15 January 2017.
By using an objective identification and tracking algorithm of the cyclone, the statistics of midlatitude cyclone activity in East Asia during summer for the period 1979–2013 were analyzed. The impact of the midlatitude summer cyclone anomalies in East Asia on the decadal mode of East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) was investigated and possible mechanisms were proposed. The possible reasons for the anomalous cyclone activity from the perspective of land surface thermal forcing were also explored. Results indicate that the midlatitude summer cyclone activity over East Asia exhibits decadal changes in the period of 1979–2013 and is significantly weakened after early 1990s. Further analysis indicates that there is a close relationship between the midlatitude summer cyclone activity over East Asia and the decadal variation of EASM; when the midlatitude summer cyclone activity over East Asia is strong (weak), EASM tends to be intensified (weakened), and the weak cyclone activity after 1993 generally coincides with the decadal weakening of EASM. Moreover, there is a close linkage between the weakening of cyclonic activity after the early 1990s and the nonuniform surface warming of the Eurasian continent. Significant warming to the west of Mongolia tends to weaken the north–south temperature gradient and the atmospheric baroclinicity to its south and eventually can lead to weakening of the midlatitude cyclone activity over East Asia.