Tag Archives: Egypt

Gulf Aqaba corals resilient to ocean warming and acidification

Jessica Bellworthy, Malika Menoud, Thomas Krueger, Anders Meibom, Maoz Fine. Developmental carryover effects of ocean warming and acidification in corals from a potential climate refugium, the Gulf of Aqaba. Journal of Experimental Biology, 2019, 222: doi: 10.1242/jeb.186940 Published 2 January 2019.

Coral reefs are degrading from the effects of anthropogenic activities, including climate change. Under these stressors, their ability to survive depends upon existing phenotypic plasticity, but also transgenerational adaptation. Parental effects are ubiquitous in nature, yet empirical studies of these effects in corals are scarce, particularly in the context of climate change. This study exposed mature colonies of the common reef-building coral Stylophora pistillata from the Gulf of Aqaba to seawater conditions likely to occur just beyond the end of this century during the peak planulae brooding season (Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5: pH −0.4 and +5°C beyond present day). Parent and planulae physiology were assessed at multiple time points during the experimental incubation. After 5 weeks of incubation, the physiology of the parent colonies exhibited limited treatment-induced changes. All significant time-dependent changes in physiology occurred in both ambient and treatment conditions. Planulae were also resistant to future ocean conditions, with protein content, symbiont density, photochemistry, survival and settlement success not significantly different compared with under ambient conditions. High variability in offspring physiology was independent of parental or offspring treatments and indicate the use of a bet-hedging strategy in this population. This study thus demonstrates weak climate-change-associated carryover effects. Furthermore, planulae display temperature and pH resistance similar to those of adult colonies and therefore do not represent a larger future population size bottleneck. The findings add support to the emerging hypothesis that the Gulf of Aqaba may serve as a coral climate change refugium aided by these corals’ inherent broad physiological resistance.

Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water, Egypt

Fakhr AE, Gohar MK, Atta AH. Impact of Some Ecological Factors on Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig City, Egypt. International journal of microbiology. 2016;2016:6240703.

Fecal contamination of drinking water is a major health problem which accounts for many cases of diarrhea mainly in infants and foreigners. This contamination is a complex interaction of many parameters. Antibiotic resistance among bacterial isolates complicates the problem. The study was done to identify fecal contamination of drinking water by Diarrheagenic Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Zagazig city and to trace reasons for such contamination, three hundred potable water samples were investigated for E. coli existence. Locations of E. coli positive samples were investigated in relation to population density, water source, and type of water pipe. Sixteen E. coli strains were isolated. Antibiotic sensitivity was done and enterotoxigenic, enteropathogenic, and enterohaemorrhagic virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Probability of fecal contamination correlated with higher population density, with increased distance from Zagazig water plant, and with asbestos cement in all isolates. Virulence genes were detected in a rate of 26.27%, 13.13%, 20%, 6.67%, and 33.33% for LT, ST, stx1, stx2, and eae genes, respectively. This relatively high frequency of fecal contamination points towards the high risk of developing diarrhea by antibiotic resistant DEC in low socioeconomic communities particularly with old fashion distribution systems.

Enteric Bacteria in the Nile, Egypt

AbdelRahim KA, Hassanein AM, Abd El Azeiz HA. Prevalence, plasmids and antibiotic resistance correlation of enteric bacteria in different drinking water resources in sohag, egypt. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. 2015 Jan 23;8(1):e18648. doi: 10.5812/jjm.18648.

BACKGROUND: One of the major health causing problems is contamination of drinking water sources with human pathogenic bacteria. Enteric bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia coli are most enteric bacteria causing serious health problems. Occurrence of such bacteria infection, which may resist antibiotics, increases the seriousness of problem.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of some enteric bacteria (Shigella, Salmonella and E. coli) in addition to Pseudomonas. The antibiotic susceptibility of these bacteria was also tested, in addition to assessing plasmid(s) roles in supposed resistance. MRSA genes in non-staphylococci were clarified.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water samples were collected from different drinking sources (Nile, ground water) and treated tap water. Selective media were used to isolate enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas. These bacteria were identified, counted and examined for its susceptibility against 10 antibiotics. The plasmids were screened in these strains. MRSA genes were also examined using PCR.

RESULTS: Thirty-two bacterial strains were isolated from Nile and ground water and identified as S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. serovar Newport, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli strains according to standard methods. According to antibiotic susceptibility test, 81% of strains were resistant to Cefepime, whereas 93.75% were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Correlation analysis between plasmids profiles and antibiotics sensitivities showed that 50% of the total strains had plasmids. These strains showed resistance to 50% of the used antibiotics (as average value); whereas, the plasmids free strains (50%) were resistant to 48.7% of the antibiotics. No distinct correlation between plasmids and antibiotic resistance in some strains could be concluded in this study. No MRSA gene was detected among these non-staphylococci strains. No bacteria were isolated from treated tap water.

CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-three bacterial strains; 10 strains of E. coli, 10 strains of S. flexneri, 3 strains S. sonnei, 2 strains of S. serovar Newport, and 7 strains of P. aeruginosa, were isolated and identified from Nile water and ground water in Sohag governorate. The prevalence of enteric bacteria in water sources in studying area was considerable. No clear or distinct correlation could be concluded between plasmids and antibiotic resistance. No MRSA gene was detected in these non-staphylococci strains, and no pathogenic bacteria were isolated from treated tap water. The hygiene procedures in the studying area seem to be adequate, despite the failure to maintain water sources form sewage pollution.

Application of the “Water Footprint” as an Assessment Tool

The concept of a “water footprint” is not universally accepted as a viable approach to setting policy. In the case of water, either you have it or you don’t. It is misleading to think that because 2 countries have shared water resources a “water footprint” calculation will make it any easier for 2 countries the share water resources. The “water footprint” values of 2 countries are not directly comparable even at the commodity-level because of differences in underlying societal values, beliefs and practices. Water utilization (e.g. water footprint) between countries may or may not result in peaceful cooperation in sharing water sources. A “water footprint” calculation may simply make it easier for countries to fight with each other over water. Comparing water use gallon for gallon is to consider water as money, dollar for dollar, regardless of how the water (or dollar) is used. Disagreements and disputes over how much water is needed will continue.

“Water footprint” calculations could be a useful tool. But it could also result in even more and sharper disputes. This study presents a reasonable approach to apply the “water footprint” as an assessment tool and not as a regulatory construct [nor an instrument of water law]. In all cases it is essential to calculate a “water footprint” using hard data.

Osama Sallam. Water footprints as an indicator for the equitable utilization of shared water resources: (Case study: Egypt and Ethiopia shared water resources in Nile Basin). Journal of African Earth Sciences. Dec2014, Vol. 100, p645-655.

The question of “equity.” is a vague and relative term in any event, criteria for equity are particularly difficult to determine in water conflicts, where international water law is ambiguous and often contradictory, and no mechanism exists to enforce principles which are agreed-upon. The aim of this study is using the water footprints as a concept to be an indicator or a measuring tool for the Equitable Utilization of shared water resources. Herein Egypt and Ethiopia water resources conflicts in Nile River Basin were selected as a case study. To achieve this study; water footprints, international virtual water flows and water footprint of national consumption of Egypt and Ethiopia has been analyzed. In this study, some indictors of equitable utilization has been gained for example; Egypt water footprint per capita is 1385 CM/yr/cap while in Ethiopia is 1167 CM/yr/cap, Egypt water footprint related to the national consumption is 95.15 BCM/yr, while in Ethiopia is 77.63 BCM/yr, and the external water footprints of Egypt is 28.5%, while in Ethiopia is 2.3% of the national consumption water footprint.  The most important conclusion of this study is; natural, social, environmental and economical aspects should be taken into account when considering the water footprints as an effective measurable tool to assess the equable utilization of shared water resources, moreover the water footprints should be calculated using a real data and there is a necessity to establishing a global water footprints benchmarks for commodities as a reference.

Advanced oxidation effective for lindane remediation

Derbalah A, Ismail A, Hamza A, Shaheen S. Monitoring and remediation of organochlorine residues in water. Water Environ Res. 2014 Jul;86(7):584-93.

This study monitored the presence of organochlorines in drinking water in Kafr-El-Sheikh, Ebshan, Elhamoul, Mehalt Aboali, Fowa, Balteem, and Metobess in the Kafr-El-Sheikh Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the efficiencies of different remediation techniques (advanced oxidation processes [AOPs] and bioremediation) for removing the most frequently detected compound (i.e., lindane) in drinking water. The results showed the presence of several organochlorine residues at all water sampling sites. Lindane was detected with high frequency relative to other detected organochlorines in water. Nano photo-Fenton-like reagent was the most effective treatment for lindane removal in drinking water. Bioremediation of lindane by effective microorganisms removed 100% of the initial concentration of lindane after 23 days of treatment. The study found that there is no remaining toxicity of lindane-contaminated water after remediation on treated rats relative to the control with respect to histopathological changes in the liver and kidneys. Therefore, AOPs, particularly those with nanomaterials and bioremediation, can be regarded as safe and effective remediation technologies for lindane in water.

US State Department fails to protect rights of US citizens?

The situation in Egypt is not being taken seriously by the US State Dept….compromise with such intolerant people is not possible…..

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