Santra D, Mandal S, Santra A, Ghorai UK. Cost effective and wireless portable device for estimation of hexavalent Chromium, Fluoride and Iron in drinking water. Anal Chem. 2018 Oct 3. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b03337.
The quality of drinking water often remains unknown to the people because of the inadequacy of cost-effective testing systems that can be used in field. Major portable instruments for water quality analysis include Ion Selective Electrodes (ISE) or Colorimeters. These are low cost devices but in case of multiple analyte detection like hexavalent Cr, Fluoride (F-) and Iron (Fe) with single instrumentation, no portable systems are available till date as per the authors’ knowledge. In this paper, we demonstrate the working of a low cost (approximate price INR 1500 or US $ 20) portable colorimetric system that can be operated with android smartphones wirelessly to estimate the contamination levels of Cr(VI), F-, or Fe in drinking water. This system also generates absorption spectra by recording absorbance of the analyte using Light Dependent Resistor (LDR) sensor. An android application software named “Spectruino” is developed to calculate the concentration of the analytes. We strongly believe that this cost-effective portable system will be very useful to ensure the drinking water quality throughout the continent to improve human health.
Harriehausen CX, Dosani FZ, Chiquet BT, Barratt MS, Quock RL. Fluoride Intake of Infants from Formula. J Clin Pediatr Dent. 2018 Oct 5. doi: 10.17796/1053-4625-43.1.7.
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess fluoride intake in infants from formula reconstituted with water, with fluorosis risk in mind.
STUDY DESIGN: Data on water source, formula brand/type, volume of formula consumption and infant weight were collected for infants at two-, four-, six-, nine- and twelve-month pediatrician well child visits. Identified formula brands and water types were reconstituted and analyzed for fluoride concentration. Patient body mass and volume consumed/day were used to estimate fluoride intake from reconstituted formula. Descriptive statistics, one-way analysis of variance and chi-square tests were utilized.
RESULTS: All infants consumed formula reconstituted with minimally fluoridated water (0.0- 0.3 ppm). 4.4% of infants exceeded the recommended upper limit (UL) of 0.1mg/kg/day. Although mean daily fluoride consumption significantly differed among all groups, the proportion of infants at each visit milestone that exceeded daily fluoride intake of 0.1mg/kg/day was not statistically significantly different (p>0.05) for any age group. Predicted values calculated with optimally fluoridated water (0.7ppm) resulted in 36.8% of infants exceeding the UL.
CONCLUSIONS: Optimally fluoridated water may increase fluorosis risk for patients younger than six months. Future investigation should include multiple sites and multi-year follow-up to assess actual fluorosis incidence.
Zuo H, Chen L, Kong M, Qiu L, Lü P, Wu P, Chen K. Toxic effects of fluoride on organisms. Life sciences. 2018 Apr 1;198:18-24. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2018.02.001.
Accumulation of excess fluoride in the environment poses serious health risks to plants, animals, and humans. This endangers human health, affects organism growth and development, and negatively impacts the food chain, thereby affecting ecological balance. In recent years, numerous studies focused on the molecular mechanisms associated with fluoride toxicity. These studies have demonstrated that fluoride can induce oxidative stress, regulate intracellular redox homeostasis, and lead to mitochondrial damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress and alter gene expression. This paper reviews the present research on the potential adverse effects of overdose fluoride on various organisms and aims to improve our understanding of fluoride toxicity.
Perera T, Ranasinghe S, Alles N, Waduge R. Effect of fluoride on major organs with the different time of exposure in rats. Environmental health and preventive medicine. 2018 May 16;23(1):17. doi: 10.1186/s12199-018-0707-2.
BACKGROUND: High fluoride levels in drinking water in relation to the prevalence of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka were investigated using rats as an experimental model.
METHOD: The effects of fluoride after oral administration of Sodium fluoride (NaF) at levels of 0, 0.5, 5 and 20 ppm F– were evaluated in adult male Wistar rats. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n = 9), namely, control, test I, II, and III. Control group was given daily 1 ml/rat of distilled water and test groups I, II, and III were treated 1 ml/rat of NaF doses of 0.5, 5, and 20 ppm, respectively, by using a stomach tube. Three rats from the control group and each experimental group were sacrificed after 15, 30, and 60 days following treatment. Serological and histopathological investigations were carried out using blood, kidney, and liver.
RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in body weight gain and relative organ weights of the liver and kidney in fluoride-treated groups compared to control group. After 60 days of fluoride administration, group I showed a mild portal inflammation with lytic necrosis while multiple areas of focal necrosis and various degrees of portal inflammation were observed in groups II and III. This was further confirmed by increased serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities. As compared with control and other treated groups, group III showed a significantly higher serum AST activity (p < 0.05) and ALT activity (p < 0.05) after 60 days and ALP activity with a significant difference (p < 0.05) after 15, 30, and 60 days. The renal histological analysis showed normal histological features in all groups with the elevated serum creatinine levels in group III compared to those in the groups I and II (p < 0.05) after 60 days. Significantly elevated serum fluoride levels were observed in group II of 30 and 60 days and group III after 15, 30, and 60 days with respective to control groups (p < 0.05).
CONCLUSION: Taken together, these findings indicate that there can be some alterations in liver enzyme activities at early stages of fluoride intoxication followed by renal damage.
Nakamoto T, Rawls HR. Fluoride Exposure in Early Life as the Possible Root Cause of Disease In Later Life. The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry. 2018 May 15. doi: 10.17796/1053-4625-42.5.1.
Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland. In addition, it has been reported to have possible effects on bone and thyroid glands. If nutritional stress is applied during a critical period of growth and development, the organ(s) and/or body will never recover once they pass through the critical period. For example, if animals are force-fed during experiments, they will simply get fat but never reach the normal size. Although early-life fluoride exposure causing fluorosis is well reported in the literature, the dental profession considers it primarily as an esthetic rather than a serious systemic problem. In the current review, we wanted to raise the possibility of future disease as a result of early-life exposure to fluoride. It is not currently known how fluoride will become a cause of future disease. Studies of other nutritional factors have shown that the effects of early nutritional stress are a cause of disease in later life.
Sayanthooran S, Gunerathne L, Abeysekera TDJ, Magana-Arachchi DN. Transcriptome analysis supports viral infection and fluoride toxicity as contributors to chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka. International urology and nephrology. 2018 May 28. doi: 10.1007/s11255-018-1892-z.
PURPOSE: Chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu), having epidemic characteristics, is being diagnosed increasingly in certain tropical regions of the world, mainly Latin America and Sri Lanka. They have been observed primarily in farming communities and current hypotheses point toward many environmental and occupational triggers. CKDu does not have common etiologies of chronic kidney disease (CKD) such as hypertension, diabetes, or autoimmune disease. We aimed to understand the molecular processes underlying CKDu in Sri Lanka using transcriptome analysis.
METHODS: RNA extracted from whole blood was reverse transcribed and used for microarray analysis using the Human HT-12 v.4 array (Illumina). Pathway analysis was carried out using ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA-Qiagen). Microarray results were validated using real-time PCR of five selected genes.
RESULTS: Pathways related to innate immune response, including interferon signaling, inflammasome signaling and TREM1 signaling had the most significant positive activation z scores, where as EIF2 signaling and mTOR signaling had the most significant negative activation z scores. Pathways previously linked to fluoride toxicity; G-protein activation, Cdc42 signaling, Rac signaling and RhoA signaling were activated in CKDu patients. The most significantly activated biological functions were cell death, cell movement and antimicrobial response. Significant toxicological functions were mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and apoptosis.
CONCLUSIONS: Based on the molecular pathway analysis in CKDu patients and review of literature, viral infections and fluoride toxicity appear to be contributing to the molecular mechanisms underlying CKDu.
Patil MM, Lakhkar BB, Patil SS. Curse of Fluorosis. Indian J Pediatr. 2018 Jan 3. doi: 10.1007/s12098-017-2574-z.
Fluoride was identified to have caries preventive properties and was widely used for fluoridation of water since 1940, especially in developed countries. After this there was sudden increase in the use of fluorides in food items and in oral medicinal products like toothpastes and mouth washes. Inadvertent use of above has lead to increase in fluorosis as a public health problem. In many places high fluorides are naturally present in earth crust leading to high water fluoride content increasing the risk of fluorosis. Maintaining a fine balance of fluorides in the body is mandatory for exploiting its advantages. World Health Organization (WHO) has fixed permissible limit of fluorides in water to 1.5 mg/L as a preventive step to contain fluorosis. Fluorosis has three clinical components: Dental, Skeletal and Non-Skeletal Fluorosis. It occurs with increasing level of fluorides in the body. Acute toxicity due to fluorides is also known and occurs as a result of sudden exposure to high levels of fluorides, usually by ingestion. Once fluorosis occurs it is irreversible without any cure. Only symptomatic and supportive management is possible. Hence prevention is the mainstay of management. Prevention is by using alternative sources of water or its de-fluoridation. National Program for Prevention and Control of Fluorosis (NPPCF) was launched in 2008-9 to identify areas with high fluoride content of water, manage the water bodies, screen schools and community for fluorosis and comprehensive management of cases. Improving quality of drinking water as per standards and improving nutritional status of children are also important components of prevention of fluorosis.