The use of water residence time as a proxy for contamination by intrusion into a water distribution system is unsupported and speculative at best. It seems these researchers do not fully understand drinking water distribution systems. Lastly, the ORs and CIs mentioned here are very low and are well within the range of no-effect. Why speculate with such a weak finding? Let’s use some common sense to operate and maintain water distribution systems and disinfectant residuals.
Levy K, Klein M, Sarnat SE, Panwhar S, Huttinger A, Tolbert P, Moe C. Refined assessment of associations between drinking water residence time and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal illness in Metro Atlanta, Georgia. Journal of Water and Health. 2016 Aug;14(4):672-681.
Recent outbreak investigations suggest that a substantial proportion of waterborne disease outbreaks are attributable to water distribution system issues. In this analysis, we examine the relationship between modeled water residence time (WRT), a proxy for probability of microorganism intrusion into the distribution system, and emergency department visits for gastrointestinal (GI) illness for two water utilities in Metro Atlanta, USA during 1993-2004. We also examine the association between proximity to the nearest distribution system node, based on patients’ residential address, and GI illness using logistic regression models. Comparing long (≥90th percentile) with intermediate WRTs (11th to 89th percentile), we observed a modestly increased risk for GI illness for Utility 1 (OR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.13), which had substantially higher average WRT than Utility 2, for which we found no increased risk (OR = 0.98, 95% CI: 0.94-1.02). Examining finer, 12-hour increments of WRT, we found that exposures >48 h were associated with increased risk of GI illness, and exposures of >96 h had the strongest associations, although none of these associations was statistically significant. Our results suggest that utilities might consider reducing WRTs to <2-3 days or adding booster disinfection in areas with longer WRT, to minimize risk of GI illness from water consumption.
CORRELATIONS BETWEEN CALCIUM, MAGNESIUM AND HARDNESS OF WATER IN THE DRINKING WATERS OF DECATUR COUNTY GEORGIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF CARDIOVASCULAR AND CEREBROVASCULAR DISEASES
Abiodun A. Ojo* and Manju Sharma
*Atlanta Metropolitan College, Division of Science, Mathematics & Health Professions, 1630 Metropolitan Parkway, SW, Atlanta, GA 30310
In this study, we are presenting some link between water hardness, calcium and magnesium levels, cardiovascular diseases and cerebrovascular disease (CVD and CBVD) in Decatur County of Georgia, USA. The drinking water samples from different regions and sources were analyzed by using the ethylenediaaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) – metal complexation method. In the study we found that the surface water sources (lakes, ponds and river water) contained low concentrations of water hardness ranging from 3.66mg/l to 33.05mg/L and calcium and magnesium ranged from 3.15-30.15mg/L and 0.38- 2.90mg/L respectively. The municipal drinking waters showed hardness; 37.23mg/L to 44.25 mgA-, calcium; and 3.06 mg/L to 4.45mg/L, magnesium. The drinking waters obtained outside the municipal city limits mainly from boreholes (well ground waters) showed geographic variations ranging from 43.69mg/L to 68.06mg/L for hardness of water; and for calcium and magnesium ranging from 37.40 mg/L to 58.05mg/L and 2.00mg/L to 21.77mg/L, respectively. The mortality rate caused by CVD is lower outside the municipal city limits compared to within the Bainbridge city limit. The ratio of high calcium and low magnesium appears to be responsible for an inverse correlation between the calcium and magnesium concentrations to CBVD mortality rate in Decatur County. A positive correlation between the levels of magnesium and CBVD was observed. This study has raised question concerning the involvement of magnesium levels in drinking water with CBVD and its supposed beneficial effects against CVD.
Would you drink the glass on the right?
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According to THE FISH WRAP…..$ 300,000 grant money….ultimately borrowed by the US from China, the Federal Reserve, or whom ever….will provide 1 new well….good deal for them…..but not sustainable…..smells like old fish to me……click here for news coverage…