Stange C, Sidhu JP, Tiehm A, Toze S. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. 2016 Jul 26. pii: S1438-4639(16)30185-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.07.015.
Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment.
“Muslim students at a German university have seized control of a “silent room” designed as a space for all pupils, transforming it into a makeshift mosque and erecting a wall to segregate genders. There are also feet washing facilities and signs instructing women to wear the veil and to not wear perfume.” click here
“Ulrich Bremer of the Cologne public prosecutor’s office told German daily Die Welt they had “so far received 1,054 complaints” from the night. Almost half of those (454) are for sexual assault, while a further 372 are reported thefts.” click here
“Around 4,000 turned out for the protest against allowing more migrants into the country, with Breitbart London’s Oliver Lane reporting live from the march alongside a Breitbart London photographer, who has this afternoon been hit by a firework as the protest became more violent and aggressive.” click here and here
“On New Year’s eve, in Cologne and other cities, such as Hamburg and Stuttgart, dozens of women were assaulted, robbed and raped by groups of men with Arab and North African features. According to the police, the men knew each other and acted in groups. Cologne Police Chief Wolfgang Albers speaks of “a whole new dimension of violence.” ” click here
“Just five arrests have been made by German police after central Cologne was transformed into a war-zone on New Year’s Eve, as an estimated 1,000 migrants celebrated by launching fireworks into crowds and sexually assaulting German women caught up in the chaos.” click here for article
Westphal T, Voigt K, Heudorf U. [Amendments to the Drinking Water Ordinance: Legionellae in Hot Water Systems – Data from the Public Health Authority Frankfurt am Main, Germany]. Gesundheitswesen. 2015 Jul 8. [Article in German]
Background: The first and second amendment to the Drinking Water Ordinance came in to force in the years 2011 and 2012 causing additional tasks and responsibilities for operators of commercial large-scale systems, usually hot water systems in large residential buildings, and for the local health authorities. This article describes the experiences of the health authority in Frankfurt/Main with these new regulations. Some of the revisions in the first amendment of the ordinance (TrinkwV 2001 (2011)) were omitted in the second revision (TrinkwV 2001 (2012)) such as the obligation to notify for large-scale systems. Furthermore, the intervals between the obligatory inspections were extended from 1 to 3 years and merely exceedances of the legal limits were to be notified in contrast to the previous obligation to notify all values.
Results: On the basis of the TrinkwV 2001 (2011) a large additional staff requirement had been estimated (13/21 positions). After the TrinkwV 2001 (2012) the tasks can be accomplished by less than 2 employees. While the notification obligation was still in force, the health authority received 4 461 notifications of large-scale systems, since then a further 477 have been notified. Of a total of 1 335 initial analyses, 794 (60%) exceeded the technical action value and in 113 properties with values exceeding 10 000/100 ml a usage restriction was necessary. Conclusions: Due to the suspension of the notification obligation to report any result of the analyses performed the assessment of the reports on large-scale systems has become difficult. An appropriate assessment of the implementation of the regulation is not possible, since the total number of large-scale systems is not known and a failure to report may result from a measured value below the technical action value as well as from a not inspected system. The large number of usage restrictions is an indication for the necessity to inspect and if required to treat and restore the system.
Selinka HC, Botzenhart K, Feuerpfeil I, Puchert W, Schmoll O, Szewzyk R, Willmitzer H. [Detection of viruses in raw water as a basic tool for risk assessment]. Bundesgesundheitsblatt Gesundheitsforschung Gesundheitsschutz. 2011 Apr;54(4):496-504. doi: 10.1007/s00103-011-1249-6. [Article in German]
Human pathogenic viruses may end up in surface waters by fecal contamination. However, the German drinking water ordinance requests that pathogens in drinking water should not be present in concentrations constituting a potential danger to human health. Since many viruses do have a very low dose of infection, they have to be sufficiently eliminated in the process of drinking water purification. Waterborne virus outbreaks in Europe, over the last few decades, were mostly linked to noncompliance with the generally accepted codes of practice for drinking water production. The aimed level of protection of drinking water supplies in Germany, however, exceeds prevention of outbreaks by even protecting against sporadic virus infections. Documentation of such a high level of protection is not achieved by end product control alone but requires a process analysis with risk assessment. To do such an analysis, information regarding the presence of viruses in the raw water used for drinking water production, as well as data of virus elimination rates during purification processes, are of major importance. This paper presents suggestions for implementation of such a risk assessment, focusing on the evaluation of raw water quality.
Click here for paper (fee).