Dilger T, Melzl H, Gessner A. Legionella contamination in warm water systems: A species-level survey. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2017 Nov 3. pii: S1438-4639(17)30535-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2017.10.011.
Legionellae constitute a frequent contamination of warm water systems and can lead to serious infections. Therefore, in many countries it is mandatory to monitor warm water systems for their presence. The method of examination in Germany is regulated by guideline ISO 11731 and DIN EN ISO 11731-2, and the results are reported as concentration of Legionella spp. Only limited information is available on the presence of individual species of Legionellae in the examined systems, since most investigations and research focus solely on Legionella pneumophila as the most important human pathogen. In this study 76,220 samples obtained from 13,397 warm water systems originating from 24 different zip code districts covering an area of more than 71,000km2 in southern Germany were examined. This resulted in the identification of 47,924 Legionella isolates to the species level using a MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry-based method. Legionella species distribution was analyzed with respect to warm water system type, geographic region (defined as zip code district) and temperature during sample taking. Overall, 20.7% of the samples were found positive for Legionella species and 14 different species of Legionella were recovered. These were not equally present throughout the geographic area investigated, but instead an individual regional diversity of Legionella species was observed for the examined zip code districts. Although Legionella pneumophila represented 84% of all contaminations found, depending on the geographical region its proportion varied substantially between 57.5% and 91.2%. The occurrence of other species was also of importance since they accounted for up to 42% of contaminations regionally, with Legionella londiniensis being most prominent representing up to 38.8% of recovered colonies. In addition, the influence of temperature on the individual species was disparate, but the temperature range between 50°C and 59°C was identified as the optimal condition for facilitating emergence of the majority of recovered Legionella species. The identification of Legionella to the species level by MALDI-TOF allowed for a more concise depiction of the regional distribution and the ecology of this genus, and may be of additional value when counter measures need to be initiated.
“The reality is that Trump and America has nothing to learn from the Green-preaching Germans, except on how to deceive and mislead the public. “ click here
“Fox News reports on three German intelligence reports that say Iran attempted to purchase illicit nuclear and ballistic missile technology no less than 32 times in 2016 — and that was just in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.” click here
Stange C, Sidhu JP, Tiehm A, Toze S. Antibiotic resistance and virulence genes in coliform water isolates. International journal of hygiene and environmental health. 2016 Jul 26. pii: S1438-4639(16)30185-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2016.07.015.
Widespread fecal pollution of surface water may present a major health risk and a significant pathway for dissemination of antibiotic resistance bacteria. The River Rhine is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe and an important raw water source for drinking water production. A total of 100 coliform isolates obtained from River Rhine (Germany) were examined for their susceptibility to seven antimicrobial agents. Resistances against amoxicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and tetracycline were detected in 48%, 11% and 9% of isolates respectively. The antibiotic resistance could be traced back to the resistance genes blaTEM, blaSHV, ampC, sul1, sul2, dfrA1, tet(A) and tet(B). Whereby, the ampC gene represents a special case, because its presence is not inevitably linked to a phenotypic antibiotic resistance. Multiple antibiotics resistance was often accompanied by the occurrence of class 1 or 2 integrons. E. coli isolates belonging to phylogenetic groups A and B1 (commensal) were more predominant (57%) compared to B2 and D groups (43%) which are known to carry virulent genes. Additionally, six E. coli virulence genes were also detected. However, the prevalence of virulence genes in the E. coli isolates was low (not exceeding 4.3% per gene) and no diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes were detected. This study demonstrates that surface water is an important reservoir of ARGs for a number of antibiotic classes such as sulfonamide, trimethoprim, beta-lactam-antibiotics and tetracycline. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in coliform bacteria isolated from River Rhine provides evidence for the need to develop management strategies to limit the spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria in aquatic environment.
“Muslim students at a German university have seized control of a “silent room” designed as a space for all pupils, transforming it into a makeshift mosque and erecting a wall to segregate genders. There are also feet washing facilities and signs instructing women to wear the veil and to not wear perfume.” click here
“Ulrich Bremer of the Cologne public prosecutor’s office told German daily Die Welt they had “so far received 1,054 complaints” from the night. Almost half of those (454) are for sexual assault, while a further 372 are reported thefts.” click here
“Around 4,000 turned out for the protest against allowing more migrants into the country, with Breitbart London’s Oliver Lane reporting live from the march alongside a Breitbart London photographer, who has this afternoon been hit by a firework as the protest became more violent and aggressive.” click here and here