Tag Archives: India

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New Dehli, India Surface Temperature Trend Decline (1996-2017)

Himalayan glaciers are doing just fine, thank you

“The claim that Himalayan glaciers are set to disappear by 2035 rests on two 1999 magazine [phone] interviews with glaciologist Syed Hasnain, which were then recycled without any further investigation in a 2005 report by the environmental [activist] group WWF. It was this report that Dr Lal and his team cited as their source.”  click here for a full discussion at the Notrickszone.

Uranium Exposure from Drinking Water, Rajasthan, India

Jakhu R, Mehra R, Mittal HM. Exposure assessment of natural uranium from drinking water. Environmental Science: Process Impacts. Nov 2016 

The uranium concentration in the drinking water of the residents of the Jaipur and Ajmer districts of Rajasthan has been measured for exposure assessment. The daily intake of uranium from the drinking water for the residents of the study area is found to vary from 0.4 to 123.9 μg per day. For the average uranium ingestion rate of 35.2 μg per day for a long term exposure period of 60 years, estimations have been made for the retention of uranium in different body organs and its excretion with time using ICRP’s biokinetic model of uranium. Radioactive and chemical toxicity of uranium has been reported and discussed in detail in the present manuscript.

480 Million India Inhabitants Exposed to Elevated Arsenic and Fluoride

Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Chatterjee A, Das D, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Chowdhury UK, Ahmed S, Biswas BK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Samanta G, Chakraborty S, Roy MM, Dutta RN, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Kar PB. Fate of over 480 million inhabitants living in arsenic and fluoride endemic Indian districts: Magnitude, health, socio-economic effects and mitigation approaches. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology. 2016 Dec;38:33-45. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.05.001.

During our last 27 years of field survey in India, we have studied the magnitude of groundwater arsenic and fluoride contamination and its resulting health effects from numerous states. India is the worst groundwater fluoride and arsenic affected country in the world. Fluoride results the most prevalent groundwater related diseases in India. Out of a total 29 states in India, groundwater of 20 states is fluoride affected. Total population of fluoride endemic 201 districts of India is 411 million (40% of Indian population) and more than 66 million people are estimated to be suffering from fluorosis including 6 million children below 14 years of age. Fluoride may cause a crippling disease. In 6 states of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain (GB-Plain), 70.4 million people are potentially at risk from groundwater arsenic toxicity. Three additional states in the non GB-Plain are mildly arsenic affected. For arsenic with substantial cumulative exposure can aggravate the risk of cancers along with various other diseases. Clinical effects of fluoride includes abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs, spine etc. The affected population chronically exposed to arsenic and fluoride from groundwater is in danger and there is no available medicine for those suffering from the toxicity. Arsenic and fluoride safe water and nutritious food are suggested to prevent further aggravation of toxicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) points out that social problems arising from arsenic and fluoride toxicity eventually create pressure on the economy of the affected areas. In arsenic and fluoride affected areas in India, crisis is not always having too little safe water to satisfy our need, it is the crisis of managing the water.

Radon and Heavy Metals in Drinking Water, Jammu & Kashmir, India

Kaur M, Sharma S, Mehra R, Sharma DK, Mishra R. RADIATION DOSE DUE TO RADON AND HEAVY METAL ANALYSIS IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES OF JAMMU DISTRICT, JAMMU & KASHMIR, INDIA. Kumar A, Radiation protection dosimetry. 2016 Oct;171(2):217-222.

In the present investigation, radon concentration and heavy metal analysis were carried out in drinking water samples in Jammu district, Jammu & Kashmir, India. The radon concentration was measured by using RAD-7, portable alpha particle detector. The values of radon concentration in drinking water samples were also compared within the safe limit recommended by different health agencies. The total annual effective dose ranged from 53.04 to 197.29 µSv y-1 The annual effective dose from few locations from the studied area was found to be greater than the safe limit (100 µSv y-1) suggested by World Health Organisation (WHO) and EU Council. Heavy metal concentration was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. A total of eight elements were analysed, viz. arsenic, mercury, zinc, iron, copper, chromium, manganese and cadmium. Heavy metals are considered to be the major pollutants of water sources. The results were compared with the limits of WHO, EU and Indian organisations. The trace metal analysis is not on the exceeding side of the permissible limit in all the samples.

Fate of 480 Million Inhabitants in Arsenic and Fluoride Endemic Indian Districts

Chakraborti D, Rahman MM, Chatterjee A, Das D, Das B, Nayak B, Pal A, Chowdhury UK, Ahmed S, Biswas BK, Sengupta MK, Lodh D, Samanta G, Chakraborty S, Roy MM, Dutta RN, Saha KC, Mukherjee SC, Pati S, Kar PB. Fate of over 480 million inhabitants living in arsenic and fluoride endemic Indian districts: Magnitude, health, socio-economic effects and mitigation approaches. Journal of trace elements in medicine and biology  2016 May 11. pii: S0946-672X(16)30071-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.05.001.

During our last 27 years of field survey in India, we have studied the magnitude of groundwater arsenic and fluoride contamination and its resulting health effects from numerous states. India is the worst groundwater fluoride and arsenic affected country in the world. Fluoride results the most prevalent groundwater related diseases in India. Out of a total 29 states in India, groundwater of 20 states is fluoride affected. Total population of fluoride endemic 201 districts of India is 411 million (40% of Indian population) and more than 66 million people are estimated to be suffering from fluorosis including 6 million children below 14 years of age. Fluoride may cause a crippling disease. In 6 states of the Ganga-Brahmaputra Plain (GB-Plain), 70.4 million people are potentially at risk from groundwater arsenic toxicity. Three additional states in the non GB-Plain are mildly arsenic affected. For arsenic with substantial cumulative exposure can aggravate the risk of cancers along with various other diseases. Clinical effects of fluoride includes abnormal tooth enamel in children; adults had joint pain and deformity of the limbs, spine etc. The affected population chronically exposed to arsenic and fluoride from groundwater is in danger and there is no available medicine for those suffering from the toxicity. Arsenic and fluoride safe water and nutritious food are suggested to prevent further aggravation of toxicity. The World Health Organization (WHO) points out that social problems arising from arsenic and fluoride toxicity eventually create pressure on the economy of the affected areas. In arsenic and fluoride affected areas in India, crisis is not always having too little safe water to satisfy our need, it is the crisis of managing the water.

Skeletal Fluorosis in Two Study Areas, India

Shruthi MN, Santhuram AN, Arun HS, Kishore Kumar BN. A comparative study of skeletal fluorosis among adults in two study areas of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar. Indian journal of public health. 2016 Jul-Sep;60(3):203-9. doi: 10.4103/0019-557X.189014.

BACKGROUND: Skeletal fluorosis is a crippling disease resulting from excessive exposure to high fluoride from different sources.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in Bangarpet taluk of Kolar, to compare various epidemiological factors influencing the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis among the two groups with differential water fluoride levels, and to estimate fluoride levels in all the sources of drinking water in study areas.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adults of three randomly selected villages of Bangarpet taluk, Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, with high (>1.5 mg/L) and Maddinayakanahalli with normal (<1.0 mg/L) fluoride levels. A house-to-house survey was conducted by administering a semi-structured questionnaire. Skeletal fluorosis was assessed by three simple physical tests in the field followed by radiological confirmation among the positives. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources were estimated by the ion-electrode method. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used as tests of association.

RESULTS: The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis at field level in both high and normal fluoride groups was 5.0%. Water fluoride levels in Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, and Maddinayakanahalli were 4.13 mg/L, 2.59 mg/L, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Among the subjects with skeletal fluorosis, a significant difference was observed between socioeconomic status and prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in both high and normal fluoride groups (P<0.05).