Guan Y, Wang X, Wong M, Sun G, An T, Guo J, Zhang G. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of Organic Extracts from Drinking Water Sources. PloS one. 2017 Jan 26;12(1):e0170454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170454.
An increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment lead to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming a serious global health concern. In this study, the Ames test and SOS/umu test were conducted to investigate the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources. Organic content of source water was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents. Four doses of the extract equivalent to 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2L of source water were tested for toxicity. All the water samples were collected from six different locations in Guangdong province. The results of the Ames test and SOS/umu test showed that all the organic extracts from the water samples could induce different levels of DNA damage and mutagenic potentials at the dose of 2 L in the absence of S9 mix, which demonstrated the existence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Additionally, we found that Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was more sensitive for the mutagen. Correlation analysis between genotoxicity, Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that most individual OCPs were frame shift toxicants in drinking water sources, and there was no correlation with total OCPs and PAHs.
Rand AA, Mabury SA. Is there a human health risk associated with indirect exposure to perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs)? Toxicology. 2016 Nov 19. pii: S0300-483X(16)30281-5. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2016.11.011.
The production and widespread use of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) has led to their presence in environment, wildlife, and humans. Particularly, the perfluorinated carboxylates (PFCAs) are pervasive throughout the world and have been found at ng/mL concentrations in human blood. PFCAs, especially those having longer carbon chain lengths (≥C6), are associated with developmental and hormonal effects, immunotoxicity, and promote tumor growth in rodents through their role as PPARα agonists. Humans are directly exposed to PFCAs primarily through contaminated food, drinking water, and house dust. However, indirect exposure to PFCAs through the biotransformation of fluorotelomer-based substances may also be a significant, yet relatively underappreciated pathway. We are exposed to fluorotelomer-based substances through use of consumer products, ingestion of food, or from inhalation of dust particles, but the risk of this exposure has been largely uncharacterized. Here, we summarize the work that has been done to characterize toxicity of the classes of fluorotelomer-based substances shown to biotransform to PFCAs: the polyfluoroalkyl phosphate esters (PAPs), fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs), fluorotelomer iodides (FTIs), and fluorotelomer acrylate monomers (FTAcs). These fluorotelomer-based substances biotranform to yield PFCAs, yet also form bioactive intermediate metabolites, which have been observed to be more toxic than their corresponding PFCAs. We address what is known regarding the toxicity of the fluorotelomer-based substances and their metabolites, with focus on covalent binding to biological nucleophiles, such as glutathione, proteins, and DNA, as a possible mechanism of toxicity that may influence the risk of indirect exposure to PFCAs.
Cheng YC, Chen HW, Chen WL, Chen CY, Wang GS. Occurrence of nonylphenol and bisphenol A in household water pipes made of different materials. Environmental monitoring and assessment 2015 Oct;188(10):562. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5556-0.
We assessed the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water supplied through polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and galvanized pipes. Water samples were collected from selected households in Taipei and Kaohsiung (Northern and Southern Taiwan, respectively) in different seasons to elucidate the effects of pipeline materials and ambient temperatures on NP and BPA concentrations in tap water. We detected higher concentrations of NP in tap water from households using PVC pipes (64-195 ng/L) than from those using stainless steel pipes (17-44 ng/L) and galvanized pipes (27-96 ng/L). To verify that water can absorb NP and BPA from PVC pipes, we sealed Milli-Q and tap water in PVC and stainless steel pipes to assess the potential release of NP and BPA from the pipes into the water. Both NP and BPA concentrations initially increased with contact time in the PVC pipes, and the concentration profiles during the retention appeared to be more strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Concentration variations in the stainless steel pipes were smaller than those in the PVC pipes.
Vandermaesen J, Horemans B, Degryse J, Boonen J, Walravens E, Springael D. Mineralization of the common groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and its metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,6-DCBA) in sand filter units of drinking water treatment plants. Environmental Science and Technology. 2016 Aug 17.
The intrinsic capacity to mineralize the groundwater pollutant 2,6-dichlorobenzamide (BAM) and its metabolite 2,6-dichlorobenzoic acid (2,6-DCBA) was evaluated in samples from sand filters (SFs) of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs). Whereas BAM mineralization occurred rarely and only in SFs exposed to BAM, 2,6-DCBA mineralization was common in SFs, including those treating uncontaminated water. Nevertheless, SFs treating BAM contaminated water showed the highest 2,6-DCBA mineralization rates. For comparison, 2,6-DCBA and BAM mineralization were determined in various topsoil samples. As in SF samples, BAM mineralization was rare, whereas 2,6-DCBA mineralization capacity appeared widespread, with high mineralization rates found especially in forest soils. Multivariate analysis showed that in both SF and soil samples, high 2,6-DCBA mineralization correlated with high organic carbon content. Adding a 2,6-DCBA degradation deficient mutant of the BAM mineralizing Aminobacter sp. MSH1 confirmed that 2,6-DCBA produced from BAM is rapidly mineralized by the endogenous microbial community in SFs showing intrinsic 2,6-DCBA mineralization. This study demonstrates that (i) 2,6-DCBA mineralization is widely established in SFs of DWTPs, allowing the mineralization of any 2,6-DCBA produced during BAM degradation and (ii) the first metabolic step in BAM mineralization is rare in microbial communities, rather than its further degradation beyond 2,6-DCBA.
Qu R, Liu J, Li C, Wang L, Wang Z, Wu J. Experimental and theoretical insights into the photochemical decomposition of environmentally persistent perfluorocarboxylic acids. Water research 2016 Jul 30;104:34-43. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.07.071.
Decomposition of perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) is of great significance due to their global distribution, persistence and toxicity to organisms. In this study, the photodegradation of a series of PFCAs (∼C2C12) in water by a medium-pressure mercury lamp was experimentally and theoretically examined. We found that photolysis of PFCAs all follow pseudo-first-order kinetics with the rate constant (kapp) increasing with carbon chain lengths, except for trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) which cannot be degraded by the polychromatic irradiation. Product analysis showed that the PFCAs were mainly decomposed into shorter carbon chain length PFCAs in a stepwise manner, with the accumulation of TFA and fluoride ions as the end products. Moreover, a small amount of perfluoroolefins (CnF2n) was determined as gas-phase products. Wiberg bond order calculations confirmed the cleavage of the CC bond between carboxylic carbon and the adjacent carbon as the first reaction step, and density functional theory-based calculations revealed that kapp value is correlated with some molecular structural parameters. In the case of mixture irradiation, the evolution profiles of individual PFCAs were different from that in single-component systems, due to the dynamic balance between production and degradation. This work reveals the main molecular descriptors controlling the degradation rate of different PFCAs species, and improves the general understanding on the photodegradation mechanisms, which will provide useful information for future researches.
Machado KC, Grassi MT, Vidal C, Pescara IC, Jardim WF, Fernandes AN, Sodré FF, Almeida FV, Santana JS, Canela MC, Nunes CR, Bichinho KM, Severo FJ. A preliminary nationwide survey of the presence of emerging contaminants in drinking and source waters in Brazil. The Science of the total environment. 2016 Aug 2;572:138-146. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.07.210.
This is the first nationwide survey of emerging contaminants in Brazilian waters. One hundred drinking water samples were investigated in 22 Brazilian state capitals. In addition, seven source water samples from two of the most populous regions of the country were evaluated. Samples were collected from June to September of 2011 and again during the same period in 2012. The study covered emerging contaminants of different classes, including hormones, plasticizers, herbicides, triclosan and caffeine. The analytical method for the determination of the compounds was based on solid-phase extraction followed by analysis via liquid chromatography electrospray triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Caffeine, triclosan, atrazine, phenolphthalein and bisphenol A were found in at least one of the samples collected in the two sampling campaigns. Caffeine and atrazine were the most frequently detected substances in both drinking and source water. Caffeine concentrations in drinking water ranged from 1.8ngL-1 to values above 2.0μgL-1 while source-water concentrations varied from 40ngL-1 to about 19μgL-1. For atrazine, concentrations were found in the range from 2.0 to 6.0ngL-1 in drinking water and at concentrations of up to 15ngL-1 in source water. The widespread presence of caffeine in samples of treated water is an indication of the presence of domestic sewage in the source water, considering that caffeine is a compound of anthropogenic origin.
Lompe KM, Menard D, Barbeau B. Performance of biological magnetic powdered activated carbon for drinking water purification. Water Research 2016 Mar 19;96:42-51. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2016.03.040.
Combining the high adsorption capacity of powdered activated carbon (PAC) with magnetic properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) leads to a promising composite material, magnetic PAC or MPAC, which can be separated from water using magnetic separators. We propose MPAC as an alternative adsorbent in the biological hybrid membrane process and demonstrate that PAC covered with magnetic NPs is suitable as growth support for heterotrophic and nitrifying bacteria. MPAC with mass fractions of 0; 23; 38 and 54% maghemite was colonized in small bioreactors for over 90 days. Although the bacterial community composition (16s rRNA analysis) was different on MPAC compared to PAC, NPs neither inhibited dissolved organic carbon and ammonia biological removals nor contributed to significant adsorption of these compounds. The same amount of active heterotrophic biomass (48 μg C/cm3) developed on MPAC with a mass fraction of 54% NPs as on the non-magnetic PAC control. While X-ray diffraction confirmed that size and type of iron oxides did not change over the study period, a loss in magnetization between 10% and 34% was recorded.