The perpetrators of the Nazi German war crimes thought they could do whatever they wanted to do without consequence, including the killing 6 million people in Poland (including 3 million Jews). Those who were brought before the court argued the moral relativism view that no one has the right to tell them what is right or wrong. They thought they could decide for themselves what is right or wrong and there was nothing wrong about what they had done. But the judge ruled they had violated “the law above the law.” Even the judge understood that there is indeed a universal moral standard of right and wrong with a universal moral duty to do what is right.
“Poland on Wednesday amended a controversial Holocaust law that sparked outrage in Israel by imposing jail terms on anyone claiming the government was responsible for Nazi German war crimes.” click here
Garboś S, Święcicka D. Application of bimodal distribution to the detection of changes in uranium concentration in drinking water collected by random daytime sampling method from a large water supply zone. Chemosphere. 2015 Jul 1;138:377-382. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.06.064.
The random daytime (RDT) sampling method was used for the first time in the assessment of average weekly exposure to uranium through drinking water in a large water supply zone. Data set of uranium concentrations determined in 106 RDT samples collected in three runs from the water supply zone in Wroclaw (Poland), cannot be simply described by normal or log-normal distributions. Therefore, a numerical method designed for the detection and calculation of bimodal distribution was applied. The extracted two distributions containing data from the summer season of 2011 and the winter season of 2012 (nI=72) and from the summer season of 2013 (nII=34) allowed to estimate means of U concentrations in drinking water: 0.947μg/L and 1.23μg/L, respectively. As the removal efficiency of uranium during applied treatment process is negligible, the effect of increase in uranium concentration can be explained by higher U concentration in the surface-infiltration water used for the production of drinking water. During the summer season of 2013, heavy rains were observed in Lower Silesia region, causing floods over the territory of the entire region. Fluctuations in uranium concentrations in surface-infiltration water can be attributed to releases of uranium from specific sources – migration from phosphate fertilizers and leaching from mineral deposits. Thus, exposure to uranium through drinking water may increase during extreme rainfall events. The average chronic weekly intakes of uranium through drinking water, estimated on the basis of central values of the extracted normal distributions, accounted for 3.2% and 4.1% of tolerable weekly intake.
Biedunkiewicz A, Kowalska K, Schulz L, Stojek K, Dynowska M, Ejdys E, Sucharzewska E, Kubiak D. Mycological monitoring of selected aquatic ecosystems in the context of epidemiological hazards. Drinking water. Annals of Parasitology. 2014;60(3):191-8.
Many species of microfungi are reported in aquatic ecosystems with different frequency. Their number constantly fluctuates depending on the concentration of environmental and anthropogenic factors. Drinking water, tap and bottled, is essential for the proper functioning of the human body. It is also the main component of food and hence it should be safe for human health and free of contaminants. The mycological purity of tap water in two large cities in the region (Olsztyn and Ostrołęka) and a small village (Gągławki) as well as bottled, medium-mineralized and curative water stored under different conditions were tested. The laboratory investigations followed a pathway applied in diagnostic mycological laboratories. The conducted tests demonstrated that microfungi were found in tap water originating from the cities and in bottled water. The rural water supply system was free from contaminations. Eighteen species of microfungi were identified in tap water from Olsztyn and 9 species in tap water from Ostrołęka. In bottled water, 13 fungal species were detected. Exophiala spinifera and Debaryomyces hansenii were recorded in the water supply systems of both cities, while one common species, i.e. Aspergillus fumigatus, was identified in tap water fromOstrołęka and in bottled water. The conducted studies have significant practical implications, for instance in sanitary and epidemiological water evaluation and in medicine in the context of analysing the quality of drinking water in reference to health resorts and nosocomial infections.
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