Tag Archives: premise plumbing

Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogen occurrence, China

Liu L, Xing X, Hu C, Wang H. One-year survey of opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens and free-living amoebae in the tap-water of one northern city of China. Journal of environmental sciences (China). 2019 Mar;77:20-31. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2018.04.020.

In this study, qPCR was used to quantify opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens (OPPPs) and free-living amoebae in 11 tap water samples collected over four seasons from a city in northern China. Results demonstrated that the average numbers of gene copies of Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were significantly higher than those of Aeromonas spp. (p < 0.05). Legionella spp. and Mycobacterium spp. were 100% (44/44) positively detected while P. aeruginosa and Aeromonas spp. were 79.54% (35/44) and 77.27% (34/44) positively detected. Legionella pneumophila was only detected in 4 samples (4/44), demonstrating its occasional occurrence. No Mycobacterium avium or Naegleria fowleri was detected in any of the samples. The average gene copy numbers of target OPPPs were the highest in summer, suggesting seasonal prevalence of OPPPs. Average gene copy numbers of OPPPs in the taps of low-use-frequency were higher than in taps of high-use-frequency, but the difference was not significant for some OPPPs (p > 0.05). Moderate negative correlations between the chlorine concentration and the gene copy numbers of OPPPs were observed by Spearman analysis (rs ranged from -0.311 to -0.710, p < 0.05). However, no significant correlations existed between OPPPs and AOC, BDOC, or turbidity. Moderate positive correlations were observed between the target microorganisms, especially for Acanthamoeba spp., through Spearman analysis (p < 0.05). Based on our studies, it is proposed that disinfectant concentration, season, taps with different-use frequency, OPPP species, and potential microbial correlations should be considered for control of OPPPs in tap water.

Monitoring Opportunistic Pathogens in Premise Plumbing

Wang H, Bédard E, Prévost M, Camper AK, Hill VR, Pruden A. Methodological approaches for monitoring opportunistic pathogens in premise plumbing: A review. Water research. 2017 Mar 25;117:68-86. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2017.03.046.

Opportunistic premise (i.e., building) plumbing pathogens (OPPPs, e.g., Legionella pneumophila, Mycobacterium avium complex, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acanthamoeba, and Naegleria fowleri) are a significant and growing source of disease. Because OPPPs establish and grow as part of the native drinking water microbiota, they do not correspond to fecal indicators, presenting a major challenge to standard drinking water monitoring practices. Further, different OPPPs present distinct requirements for sampling, preservation, and analysis, creating an impediment to their parallel detection. The aim of this critical review is to evaluate the state of the science of monitoring OPPPs and identify a path forward for their parallel detection and quantification in a manner commensurate with the need for reliable data that is informative to risk assessment and mitigation. Water and biofilm sampling procedures, as well as factors influencing sample representativeness and detection sensitivity, are critically evaluated with respect to the five representative bacterial and amoebal OPPPs noted above. Available culturing and molecular approaches are discussed in terms of their advantages, limitations, and applicability. Knowledge gaps and research needs towards standardized approaches are identified.