Dudarev AA. Public Health Practice Report: water supply and sanitation in Chukotka and Yakutia, Russian Arctic. International Journal Of Circumpolar Health 2018 Dec; Vol. 77 (1), pp. 1423826.
Information from 2013-2015 have been analysed on water accessibility, types of water service to households, use of water pretreatment, availability of sewerage, use of sewage treatment in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Yakutia Republic, based on evaluation information accessible in open sources, such as regional statistics and sanitary-epidemiologic reports. The main causes of the poor state of water supply and sanitation in the study regions include: very limited access to in-home running water (one-quarter of settlements in Chukotka and half of settlements in Yakutia have no regular water supply) and lack of centralised sewerage (78% and 94% of settlements correspondingly have no sewerage); lack of water pretreatment and sewage treatment, outdated technologies and systems; serious deterioration of facilities and networks, frequent accidents; secondary pollution of drinking water. Lack of open objective information on Russian Arctic water supply and sanitation in the materials of the regional and federal statistics hampers the assessment of the real state of affairs. The situation for water and sanitation supply in these Russian Arctic regions remains steadily unfavourable. A comprehensive intervention from national and regional governmental levels is urgently needed.
Novikov SM, Shashina TA, Dodina NS, Kislitsyn VA, Vorobiova LM, Goryaev DV, Tikhonova IV, Kurkatov SV.
[COMPARATIVE ASSESSMENT OF THE MULTIMEDIA CANCER HEALTH RISKS CAUSED BY CONTAMINATION OF THE KRASNOYARSK KRAI REGIONS’ ENVIRONMENT]. Gig Sanit. 2015 Mar-Apr;94(2):88-92. [Article in Russian]
Krasnoyarsk Krai is a region with developed mining and processing industries, notoriously known industries, as sources of carcinogenic emission. For 55 administrative units of the Krai 303 large enterprises’ industrial emissions were preliminary prioritized and their location was designated. Only 52% out of the carcinogens emitted into the ambient air by industries were controlled, in other environments the figures ranged from 20% (soil, food) to 48% (drinking water), 10 carcinogens were not controlled in the environment at all. Based on the results of ranking carcinogenic emission and analysis of the carcinogens monitoring in the environment in 2007-2011 31 substances were selected. A comparative analysis of multiple environmental carcinogenic risks showed that 78% of the areas, based on the receipt of carcinogens from two media, and 80% of the areas taking into account the receipt of carcinogens from three media attributed to the alarming level of risk for population, that requires continuous monitoring and routine health interventions for its mitigation. The maximal multiple environmental risk values that took into account inputs from all sources were close to the upper boundary alarming level of risk, in Divnogorsk (7,80E-04), Norilsk (7,97 E-04), Krasnoyarsk (8,84E-04) and Achinsk (9,4 E-04). The greatest inputs to total individual cancer risk from polluted ambient air were made by benzene, chromium VI, formaldehyde and nickel, from drinking water–by arsenic, aldrin and heptachlor from soil–by arsenic and lead. The ambient air input into total multiple environmental carcinogenic risk ranged from 31.5 to 99.5%, drinking water input–from 0.5 to 68.5%, soil–up to 0.1%. Areas with maximum levels of total carcinogenic risk are characterized by the highest levels of average long-term indices of cancer development. The study discussed in this article has screening nature. Further in-depth researches for carcinogenic and toxic multimedia risks are required.
Bezgodov IV, Efimova NV, Kuzmina MV. [ASSESSMENT OF THE QUALITY OF DRINKING WATER AND RISK FOR THE POPULATION’S HEALTH IN RURAL TERRITORIES IN THE IRKUTSK REGION]. Gig Sanit. 2015 Mar-Apr;94(2):15-9.
The hygienic analysis of centralized and decentralized water supply in rural population in Irkutsk region was performed. About 403 thousand of the upstaters use water wells, voids and springs. In drinking water there were detected significant concentrations of iron, nitrates, manganese. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated noncarcinogenic risk for adults (HI = 1.2-1.3) and children (HI = 1.1-2.9). Carcinogenic risk for water from groundwater sources supply is 1.56 · 10(-5)-2.1 · 10(-4) for 22.2 thousand of upstaters. There were determined priority carcinogenic ingredients: arsenic (contribution is 56.3-100%) and hexad chromium (contribution is 29.9-35.8%).
Doushkina EV, Dudarev AA, Sladkova YN, Zachinskaya IY, Chupakhin VS, Goushchin IV, Talykova LV, Nikanov AN. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region]. [Article in Russian] Meditsina truda i promyshlennaia ekologiia. 2015;(2):29-34.
Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities’ drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities’ residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply–that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.
Grigorev YI, Lyapina NV. [Assessment of risk of contamination of drinking water for the health of children in the Tula region]. Gig Sanit. 2014 May-Jun;(3):23-6. [Article in Russian]
The hygienic analysis of centralized drinking water supply in Tula region was performed. Priority contaminants of drinking water were established. On the base of the application of risk assessment methodology there was calculated carcinogenic risk for children’s health. A direct relationship between certain classes of diseases and pollution of drinking water with chemical contaminants has been determined.
“We all know how the old saying goes when you travel: “Don’t drink the water.”
Well in Sochi, Russia, you had better not TOUCH the water, either.”
click here for the full news article.
Borinskaia EI, Davydov BN, Kushnir SM, Borinskiĭ IN, Mikin VM. [Risk and prevention of teeth fluorosis in infants by feeding pattern changes.] Stomatologiia (Mosk). 2013;92(2):57-59. [Article in Russian]
Effect of fluorides in drinking water on fluorine content in breast milk, the food for infants of the 1-sty year of life, was investigated. On determining fluorine concentration in urine and its excretion, fluorine intake by the infants was calculated under various alternatives (breast, mixed and artificial) of feeding. It has been found the in mixed and especially in artificial feeding, fluorine intake by the infants acquires uncontrollable character exceeding several times the dose of fluorine intake with breast milk under natural feeding. That was predominantly fluorine of drinking water. Mathematical formula for calculation of fluorine content in the food cooked for feeding of infants was elaborated. A computer program was formed be means of which calculation, control and management of fluorine intake are carried out in feeding alteration.