Nie X, Liu W, Zhang L, Liu Q. Genotoxicity of drinking water treated with different disinfectants and effects of disinfection conditions detected by umu-test. Journal of environmental sciences (China). 2017 Jun;56:36-44. doi: 10.1016/j.jes.2016.07.016.
The genotoxicity of drinking water treated with 6 disinfection methods and the effects of disinfection conditions were investigated using the umu-test. The pretreatment procedure of samples for the umu-test was optimized for drinking water analysis. The results of the umu-test were in good correlation with those of the Ames-test. The genotoxicity and production of haloacetic acids (HAAs) were the highest for chlorinated samples. UV+chloramination is the safest disinfection method from the aspects of genotoxicity, HAA production and inactivation effects. For chloramination, the effects of the mass ratio of Cl2 to N of chloramine on genotoxicity were also studied. The changes of genotoxicity were different from those of HAA production, which implied that HAA production cannot represent the genotoxic potential of water. The genotoxicity per chlorine decay of chlorination and chloramination had similar trends, indicating that the reaction of organic matters and chlorine made a great contribution to the genotoxicity. The results of this study are of engineering significance for optimizing the operation of waterworks.
Antonio LS, Jeggle P, MacVinish LJ, Bartram JC, Miller H, Jarvis GE, Levy FM, Santesso MR, Leite AL, Oliveira RC, Buzalaf MA, Edwardson JM. The effect of fluoride on the structure, function, and proteome of a renal epithelial cell monolayer. Environ Toxicol. 2017 Apr;32(4):1455-1467. doi:10.1002/tox.22338
High concentrations of fluoride in the body may cause toxic effects. Here, we investigated the effects of fluoride on the structure, function, and proteome of a cortical collecting duct epithelium in vitro. Kidney tubule cells (M-1) were chosen because the concentration of fluoride in the kidney is 4-5-fold higher than that in plasma. Mouse M-1 cell monolayers were incubated in fluoride-containing media, and the amiloride-sensitive short-circuit current and transepithelial resistance were measured. The Young’s modulus of the epithelium was determined using atomic force microscopy, and the effect of fluoride on epithelial structure was assessed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy, and immunofluorescence. Differences in the expression of membrane proteins were evaluated using proteomics and bioinformatics. Fluoride exposure reduced both transepithelial Na+ transport and resistance. The IC50 for fluoride was ∼300 µM for both effects, and the half-times for the decays of ion transport and resistance were 8.4 h and 3.6 days, respectively. Fluoride treatment did not affect the sensitivity of Na+ transport to amiloride. The Young’s modulus of the epithelium was also unaffected by fluoride; however, the functional effects of fluoride were accompanied by marked structural effects. Proteomic analysis revealed changes in expression of a number of proteins, and particularly mitochondrial proteins. Treatment with fluoride had profound effects on the structure, function and proteome of a model cortical collecting duct epithelium. Significantly, however, these effects were produced only at concentrations considerably higher than those likely to be encountered in vivo.
Guan Y, Wang X, Wong M, Sun G, An T, Guo J, Zhang G. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of Organic Extracts from Drinking Water Sources. PloS one. 2017 Jan 26;12(1):e0170454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170454.
An increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment lead to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming a serious global health concern. In this study, the Ames test and SOS/umu test were conducted to investigate the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources. Organic content of source water was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents. Four doses of the extract equivalent to 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2L of source water were tested for toxicity. All the water samples were collected from six different locations in Guangdong province. The results of the Ames test and SOS/umu test showed that all the organic extracts from the water samples could induce different levels of DNA damage and mutagenic potentials at the dose of 2 L in the absence of S9 mix, which demonstrated the existence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Additionally, we found that Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was more sensitive for the mutagen. Correlation analysis between genotoxicity, Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that most individual OCPs were frame shift toxicants in drinking water sources, and there was no correlation with total OCPs and PAHs.
Ames testing and use of other toxicity tests on drinking water has been proposed before. In general it is not possible to distinguish which compounds in drinking water are responsible for the toxicity. We’ve certainly known for many years that the majority of toxicity potential in drinking water can be attributed to a single compound that goes by the name of MX. General toxicity testing such as this has been debated in the past.
Ceretti E, Moretti M, Zerbini I, Villarini M, Zani C, Monarca S, Feretti D. Occurrence and Control of Genotoxins in Drinking Water: A Monitoring Proposal. Journal of public health research. 2016 Dec 21;5(3):769. doi: 10.4081/jphr.2016.769.
Many studies have shown the presence of numerous organic genotoxins and carcinogens in drinking water. These toxic substances derive not only from pollution, but also from the disinfection treatments, particularly when water is obtained from surface sources and then chlorinated. Most of the chlorinated compounds in drinking water are nonvolatile and are difficult to characterize. Thus, it has been proposed to study such complex mixtures using short-term genotoxicity tests predictive of carcinogenic activity. Mutagenicity of water before and after disinfection has mainly been studied by the Salmonella/microsome (Ames test); in vitro genotoxicity tests have also been performed in yeasts and mammalian cells; in situ monitoring of genotoxins has also been performed using complete organisms such as aquatic animals or plants (in vivo). The combination of bioassay data together with results of chemical analyses would give us a more firm basis for the assessment of human health risks related to the consumption of drinking water. Tests with different genetic end-points complement each other with regard to sensitivity toward environmental genotoxins and are useful in detecting low genotoxicity levels which are expected in drinking water samples.
Bandlapalli Pavani, Mandava Ragini, David Banji, Otilia J F Banji, N Gouri Pratusha. Fluoride Toxicity – A Harsh Reality. International Research Journal of Pharmacy, Vol 2, Iss 4, Pp 79-85 (2011).
There are many incidents of fluoride toxicity whether it is acute or chronic. Fluoride toxicity is an environmental hazard which arises from the upper layers of geological crust and is dissolved in water. Prolonged drinking of such water causes chronic fluoride toxicity. Use of fluoride containing compounds for various purposes such as dental products, metal, glass, refrigerator and chemical industries act as a source of fluoride poisoning and increase the risk of toxicity. This review reflects the deleterious effects of fluorides on various organs in the physiological system.
Spittle B. Development of Fluoride Toxicity Including Cognitive Impairment with Reduced IQ: Pathophysiology, Interactions With Other Elements, and Predisposing and Protective Factors. Fluoride. Jul-Sep2016, Vol. 49 Issue 3, Part 1, p189-193.
The development of toxicity to the fluoride ion (F) may be complex and multifactorial with a number of pathophysiological path ways being possible, with the potential for interactions between toxins involving additivity, synergism, and antagonism, and with a number of other factors having predisposing and protective effects. In addition to cognitive impairment with a reduced intelligence quotient (IQ) in children developing through other mechanisms such as disturbed thyroid hormone metabolism and sonic hedgehog signalling, other pathophysiological factors such as reduced brain glucose uptake following a fluoride-induced reduction in insulin secretion may contribute. Environmental contamination with cadmium in a coal combustion fluorosis-affected rural area within China’s Three Gorges region may contribute to the dental and skeletal health problems in the population and the possibility of interactions between Cd and F affecting cognitive functioning requires further investigation. The propensity for the development of toxicity to F may involve interactions with a number of other factors as well as the levels of F exposure.
Olszowski T, Sikora M, Chlubek D. Combined Toxicity of Fluoride and Cadmium. Fluoride. Jul-Sep2016, Vol. 49 Issue 3, Part 1, p194-203.
Fluoride (F – ) and cadmium (Cd) are toxicants found ubiquitously in the human environment. The aim of this review was to identify and characterize studies that attempted to determine the combined toxicity of F – and Cd. The effects of F – and Cd on liver and kidney (with a special focus on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology), bone, tooth enamel, dental caries, and brain were taken into consideration. Based on the results of the studies described in this review, various types of combined toxicity of F – and Cd might occur: additive, synergistic, or antagonistic, with the latter two being true interactions. However, the type of combined action occurring seems to depend on many factors, such as which toxic effect is considered, the dose levels of F – and Cd and their dose ratio, exposure duration, presence of other elements, etc. Moreover , when analyzing the combined toxic effects of F – and Cd, the possible interactions of these toxicants with other elements (e.g., fluoride with aluminum and arsenic; cadmium with lead, arsenic, zinc, selenium, and calcium) should also be taken into consideration. We also may not exclude the independent action of F – and Cd on some selected functions/health outcomes. Due to the huge gaps in knowledge, additional studies are required to address this important public health issue, i.e., the combined effects of exposure to these common environmental toxicants , especially among people with high exposure to these elements.