Tag Archives: Turkey

Dental fluorosis prevalence high in Turkey village fluoride study

I’m somewhat surprised that this study has no control group or that the findings were not compared to a town of similar size with no fluoride. Comparing results to national statistics is not very informative. In a limited study such as this observing health effects other than dental fluorosis is unlikely.

Sezgin BI, Onur ŞG, Menteş A, Okutan AE, Haznedaroğlu E, Vieira AR. Two-fold excess of fluoride in the drinking water has no obvious health effects other than dental fluorosis. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2018 Dec;50:216-222. doi: 10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.07.004. Epub 2018 Jul 11.

BACKGROUND: There is concern that fluorides in the drinking water is hazardous to health.

METHODS: We conducted an observational study in the village of Hanliyenice (population 280), Turkey, which has 2.5 times higher than optimal levels of fluoride in the drinking water and evaluated all children 7-13 years of age (N = 30). We collected information on dental decay, fluorosis, daily water consumption and diet, child history and her family history of cancer, cardiovascular risks/diseases, and asthma, and obtained a blood sample for extraction of genomic DNA. We genotyped ten single nucleotide polymorphisms in aquaporins.

RESULTS: As expected, a high number of children were dental caries free (19 out of 30) and had fluorosis (25 out of 30). Family history of cancer, cardiovascular events, and asthma was not different from the expected figures based on Turkey. One variant just upstream of AQP5 was associated with being fluorosis free. (G allele of AQP5 rs296763, p = 6.0E-6).

CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to levels of fluoride twice as high than the optimum in the drinking water increases the prevalence of fluorosis, dramatically decreases dental caries, and does not increase the risk of cancer, cardiovascular events, and asthma.

“Islamic Cult” may be Operating on US Military Bases?

“Charter schools that may soon be operating on military bases in the United States are linked to what the Turkish government describes as an Islamic cult run by Fethullah Gülen, a powerful cleric living in Pennsylvania.” click here

Tap Water Perchlorate Levels in 5 Cities, Turkey

Erdemgil Y, Gözet T, Can Ö, Ünsal İ, Özpınar A. Perchlorate levels found in tap water collected from several cities in Turkey. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 2016 Mar;188(3):158. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5161-2.

Perchlorate is an inorganic anion that inhibits iodide transport to the thyroid by sodium-iodide transporters. Because perchlorate is highly soluble, stable, and mobile in water, drinking water is a potential source of perchlorate exposure. When exposed to perchlorate, thyroid dysfunction can be observed in sensitive populations (pregnant woman, infants, and children), especially those with iodide deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the perchlorate levels in tap water from five cities in Turkey. Perchlorate concentrations of 145 tap water samples collected from Ankara, Isparta, Istanbul, Kayseri, and Sakarya were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Mean and median values were found to be 0.15 and 0.07 μg/L, respectively. The median values (25-75 % percentile) of Istanbul, Ankara, Sakarya, Isparta, and Kayseri were 0.08 μg/L (0.04-0.09 μg/L), 0.07 μg/L (0.07-0.21 μg/L), 0.04 μg/L (0.04-0.04 μg/L), 0.03 μg/L (0.02-0.07 μg/L), and 0.25 μg/L (0.23-0.31 μg/L), respectively. The median perchlorate level observed in Kayseri was significantly higher than those found at other cities (p < 0.05). Perchlorate concentrations in water samples were lower than the interim drinking water health advisory level (15 μg/L) determined by the US Environmental Protection Agency. This study showed that perchlorate in drinking water is not the main source of exposure in these cities. Future studies should be performed to determine perchlorate levels in other potential sources, such as food products.

Heavy Metals in Drinking Water and Cancer Incidence in Black Sea Area of Turkey

Colak EH, Yomralioglu T, Nisanci R, Yildirim V, Duran C. Geostatistical analysis of the relationship between heavy metals in drinking water and cancer incidence in residential areas in the Black Sea region of Turkey. J Environ Health. 2015 Jan-Feb;77(6):86-93.

In the study described in this article, the authors examined the relationship between heavy metals in the drinking water and cancer densities in residential areas. The Turkish cities of Trabzon, Rize, and Giresun in the eastern Black Sea region were chosen as the study areas. Cancer registry data, population information, heavy metal chemical analysis results for drinking water, and other spatial information for the region were collected in a database designed in GIS. Information on a total of 13,012 registered cancer cases from the years 2000-2007 was obtained from a cancer record center and depicted spatially on a map. The incidence values explaining cancer density in residential units were calculated. Chemical analyses were then conducted to determine the presence of 17 different heavy metals by collecting a total of 541 drinking water samples. It was determined that among the 17 analyzed heavy metals, beryllium, nickel, antimony, and molybdenum had a significant relationship with cancer incidence values in the residential units.

Turkey Builds Drinking Water Pipeline to Cyprus

“An ambitious pipeline project linking reservoirs in Turkey to the parched, isolated Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is on track to bring much needed drinking water to the island by year’s end.”

“Engineers behind the Baris Su (“Peace Water”) project said earlier this month they passed the halfway point on the 66-mile undersea pipeline, and could be delivering fresh water from Turkey to Turkish Cypriots for drinking and agricultural development by the end of the year. Click here for news article.

Gastroenteritis outbreak in Erzurum City, Turkey

Sezen F, Aval E, Ağkurt T, Yilmaz S, Temel F, Güleşen R, Korukluoğlu G, Sucakli MB, Torunoğlu MA, Zhu BP. A large multi-pathogen gastroenteritis outbreak caused by drinking contaminated water from antique neighbourhood fountains, Erzurum city, Turkey, December 2012. Epidemiol Infect. 2014 Jun 19:1-7.

We investigated a gastroenteritis outbreak in Erzurum city, Turkey in December 2012 to identify its cause and mode of transmission. We defined a probable case as onset of diarrhoea (⩾3 episodes/day) or vomiting, plus fever or nausea or abdominal pain during 19-27 December, 2012 in an Erzurum city resident. In a case-control study we compared exposures of 95 randomly selected probable cases and 95 neighbourhood-matched controls. We conducted bacterial culture and real-time multiplex PCR for identification of pathogens. During the week before illness onset, 72% of cases and 15% of controls only drank water from antique neighbourhood fountains; conversely, 16% of cases and 65% of controls only drank bottled or tap water (adjusted odds ratio 20, 95% confidence interval 4·6-84, after controlling for age and sex using conditional logistic regression). Of eight stool specimens collected, two were positive for Shigella sonnei, one for astrovirus, one for astrovirus and norovirus, and one for astrovirus and rotavirus. Water samples from the fountains had elevated total coliform (38-300/100 ml) and Escherichia coli (22-198/100 ml) counts. In conclusion, drinking contaminated fountain water caused this multi-pathogen outbreak. Residents should stop drinking water from these fountains, and clean water from the water treatment plant should be connected to the fountains.