Tag Archives: United Kingdom

Sentinel Weather Stations Affected by Land Use Changes and Urbanization

“Central England Temperature stations, long considered a benchmark, have been affected by land use change and urbanization.” click here

Investigating a Waterborne Outbreak of Cryptosporidiosis; Ireland

Mahon M, Doyle S. Waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidiosis in the South East of Ireland: weighing up the evidence. Ir J Med Sci. 2017 Jan 13. doi: 10.1007/s11845-016-1552-1.

BACKGROUND: In late Spring 2012, 12 cases of cryptosporidiosis in a town in the South East of Ireland were notified to the regional Department of Public Health.

AIM: The purpose of this paper is to describe the outbreak and the investigative process which led to the conclusion that the source was a public drinking water supply.

METHODS: Outbreak and incident control teams were convened to investigate and control the outbreak.

RESULTS: Eleven cases were speciated as Cryptosporidium parvum. GP60 analysis demonstrated that 10 were C. parvum IIaA20G3R1, indicating that the cases were linked. The public water supply was the only common risk factor identified. Increased water sampling identified Cryptosporidium muris/andersoni in the treated water at one of two water treatment plants (Water Treatment Plant, WTP A) for the supply, and on the network. C. parvum was subsequently identified in raw water from WTP A.

CONCLUSIONS: The Health Service Executive (HSE) concluded that this outbreak was “probably associated with water” produced at WTP A based on (1) descriptive epidemiological evidence suggesting water-related illness and excluding other obvious explanations; and (2) water treatment failure at WTP A. WTP A was closed to facilitate an upgrade. No boil water notice was required as a supplementary supply was available. The upgrade was completed and the incident closed in 2013.

Anaerobic Digesters Unsustainable for Biomethane Production, UK

“Their supporters claim they are a cost-effective and environmentally-friendly way of producing gas to heat homes while curbing greenhouse gas emissions. According to the Anaerobic Digester and Bioresources Association (ADBA), the industry’s lobby group, they will lead to ‘stable energy prices, fewer carbon dioxide emissions, and a financial saving for homes and businesses across the country’.

But the reality is this supposedly green energy source comes at a heavy cost to taxpayers and to the environment it is supposed to protect. An investigation by this newspaper has revealed that: …” click here for news article

Membrane Filter Method for Clostridium perfringens

Watkins J, Sartory DP; UK Standing Committee of Analysts. Evaluation of a membrane filtration method for the rapid enumeration of confirmed Clostridium perfringens from water. Letters in Applied Microbiology. 2015 Apr;60(4):367-71. doi: 10.1111/lam.12383.

A modification of the UK reference and ISO 14189 TSCA medium for the enumeration of Clostridium perfringens from water coupled with a membrane filter transfer technique for testing for production of acid phosphatase was evaluated. The new tryptose cycloserine agar (TCA) medium, which lacks sodium metabisulphite but contains sodium pyruvate to improve recovery, allows the isolation and confirmation of Cl. perfringens within 18-24 h of sample processing. Data from a multilaboratory study analysed according to ISO 17994 showed that TCA was equivalent to TSCA for the enumeration of Cl. perfringens. The identification of acid phosphatase-negative isolates revealed a false-negative rate for the TCA method of 0.8%. The TCA membrane filter transfer procedure provides confirmed Cl. perfringens counts in half the time of the TSCA method and is simple to undertake.

SIGNIFICANCE AND IMPACT OF THE STUDY: The testing of drinking water for Clostridium perfringens is a regulatory parameter in Europe and the UK. Current UK and ISO methods employ membrane filtration (MF) and TSCA medium followed by subculture and confirmation of isolates by testing for acid phosphatase. This takes 48 h. We present here the results of a multilaboratory evaluation of a MF method that features a simplified isolation medium (TCA) and a membrane transfer procedure for the acid phosphatase test resulting in confirmed results being available in 18-24 h. This development significantly reduces the time to confirmed results for Cl. perfringens from water samples.

Global Ocean Conditions Drive Climate Changes

A prolonged cooling of the globe is much more of a problem than any small temperature increase. Natural ocean oscillations and changes drive many of the changes in climate. Here is just one example.

Carbon dioxide is a non-issue when it comes to massive regional and global ocean oscillations. USEPA regulations that impair or destroy an economy will only make it more difficult to respond to prolonged cooling.

“BRITAIN faces DECADES of savage winters driven by freak changes in global ocean conditions and a weakening of the sun.” click here for full article

Renewable Energy Cost Comparison

An informative post here comparing the cost of renewable energy. I purchased my first solar system for my home in the early 1980s. There were tax breaks then (sound familiar) and many promises made that with just a little more research solar, wind, and other renewables will be able to replace fossil fuels. We know now that this is wishful thinking (despite pleas such as this to make it not so). $150 million dollars will not change basic physics, energy conversion, and heat transfer realities. Get over it. Renewable energies depend on coal and other fossil fuels which will always be more cost effective. There’s a need and a place for renewables as well as fossil fuels.

The inefficiency in energy conversion and higher cost of renewables simply cannot be over come. 

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Source: Wattsupwiththat.com

PS: I show this presentation by Dr. David McKay  in my Sustainable Civil Engineering class because it provides a good reality check on the feasibility of renewables in the UK.

Hypothyroidism and Fluoridated Drinking Water

Access to this publication requires a subscription. No author was listed for this article.

Hypothyroidism is more prevalent in areas with fluoridated drinking water. Nursing Standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) 2015 Mar 25;29(30):15. doi: 10.7748/ns.29.30.15.s19.

UK researchers have called for a rethink on adding fluoride to the water supply in England after a study showed a significant link between water fluoridation and higher rates of hypothyroidism.