Moore D, Goodwin M, Pretty IA. Long-term variability in artificially and naturally fluoridated water supplies in England. Community dentistry and oral epidemiology, 2019 Oct 18. doi: 10.1111/cdoe.12502
OBJECTIVES: To understand the potential impact of exposure misclassification on water fluoridation studies in England, this paper aims to describe the long-term variation in water fluoride concentrations in both artificially and naturally fluoridated water supplies.
METHODS: Water fluoridation dose monitoring data were requested from all five English public water suppliers who artificially fluoridate their water, as well as from one water company that supplies naturally fluoridated water. Descriptive statistics were calculated, including annual means, standard deviations, minimum-maximum and absolute and relative frequencies.
RESULTS: Data were made available by two of the five English water companies who supply artificially fluoridated water and one water company that supplies naturally fluoridated water (40 398 individual samples). The data for fluoridated water spanned 18-35 years, whilst the data on naturally fluoridated water spanned 14 years. The artificially fluoridated samples showed wide variation in fluoride dose control, both between different water treatment works and over time. Mean fluoride concentrations in the artificially fluoridated supplies ranged from 0.53 (SD 0.47) to 0.93 (SD 0.22) mg F/L and were within the optimal range of 0.7-1.0 mg F/L in 27.7%-77.8% of samples. The naturally fluoridated supplies had a higher mean fluoride concentration of 1.06 (SD 0.18) and 1.15 (SD 0.16) mg F/L than the artificially fluoridated supplies, with lower variation over time. The naturally fluoridated supplies were above the optimal range in 75.5% and 53% of samples.
CONCLUSIONS: Assumptions that populations living in areas with a water fluoridation scheme have received optimally fluoridated water (0.7-1.0 mg F/L) are invalid. To support future research endeavours, as well as to provide ‘external control’ and facilitation of optimal dosing, it is recommended that a quarterly record of water fluoride concentrations (mean, standard deviation and minimum and maximum) are made available for every water supply in England, in a format that can be mapped against residential postcodes.
“This comes one month after The Guardian, a prominent U.K. newspaper, discarded climate change in favor of more alarming terms, like “climate emergency, crisis or breakdown.” click here
“Since Oke there has been considerable progress in understanding the complex phenomena of UHI and the science has moved beyond the simple approach of looking at population as a parameter that uniquely determines UHI. If everyone leaves a city, it will still have UHI.” click here
“This paper finds through the method of observation minus reanalysis that urbanisation has significantly increased the daily minimum 2‐m temperature in the United Kingdom by up to 1.70 K.” click here
Jarvis P, Quy K, Macadam J, Edwards M, Smith M. Intake of lead (Pb) from tap water of homes with leaded and low lead plumbing systems. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Dec 10;644:1346-1356. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.064.
Methods of quantifying consumer exposure to lead in drinking water are increasingly of interest worldwide, especially those that account for consumer drinking habits and the semi-random nature of water lead release from plumbing systems. A duplicate intake protocol was developed in which individuals took a sub-sample from each measured drink they consumed in the home over three days in both winter and summer. The protocol was applied in two different water company regional areas (WC1 and WC2), selected to represent high risk situations in England, with the presence or absence of lead service pipes or phosphate corrosion control. Consumer exposure to lead was highest in properties with lead service pipes, served by water without P dosing. The protocol indicated that a small number of individuals in the study, all from homes with lead service pipes, consumed lead at levels that exceeded current guidance from the European Food Standards Agency. Children’s potential blood lead levels (BLLs) were estimated using the Internal Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). The IEUBK model predicted that up to 46% of children aged 0-7 years old may have elevated BLLs (>5 μg/dL) when consuming the worst case drinking water quality (>99%ile). Estimating blood lead levels using the IEUBK model for more typical lead concentrations in drinking water identified in this study (between 0.1 and 7.1 μg/L), predicts that elevated BLLs may affect a small proportion of children between 0 and 7 years old.
There are those who hate Christianity and call their hatred all-embracing love for all religions. G.K. Chesterton (1874-1936)
Christianophobia = an irrational animosity towards or hatred of Christians, or Christianity in general. (McMillan Dictionary)
Many Christians believe they have experienced animosity or discrimination because of their faith. Not all Christians are equally likely to be victimized by Christianophobia, but certain kinds of Christians (e.g. here), are much more likely to be attacked, even by political groups who identify themselves as “christian.”
Research on Christianophobia has found patterns of bigotry, hatred, prejudice, stereotyping and dehumanization…..Here, Christianophobia is apparently driving opposition and personal attacks toward Mr. Graham.
Instead of being opposed, the Lancashire Festival of Hope deserves full support for the positive impact the event will have on this community.
“Thousands of energy customers could be left in limbo due to a high risk that around 10 of the most fragile suppliers are on the brink of going under.” click here