Tag Archives: United States

No Significant Trend in Major Floods in North America, Europe

Glenn A. Hodgkins, Paul H. Whitfield, Donald H. Burn, Jamie Hannaford, Benjamin Renard, Kerstin, Stahl, Anne K. Fleig, Henrik Madsen, Luis Mediero, Johanna, Korhonen, Conor Murphy, Donna Wilson. Climate-driven variability in the occurrence of major floods across North America and Europe  Journal of Hydrology Volume 552, September 2017, Pages 704-717  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2017.07.027

Concern over the potential impact of anthropogenic climate change on flooding has led to a proliferation of studies examining past flood trends. Many studies have analysed annual-maximum flow trends but few have quantified changes in major (25–100 year return period) floods, i.e. those that have the greatest societal impacts. Existing major-flood studies used a limited number of very large catchments affected to varying degrees by alterations such as reservoirs and urbanisation. In the current study, trends in major-flood occurrence from 1961 to 2010 and from 1931 to 2010 were assessed using a very large dataset (>1200 gauges) of diverse catchments from North America and Europe; only minimally altered catchments were used, to focus on climate-driven changes rather than changes due to catchment alterations. Trend testing of major floods was based on counting the number of exceedances of a given flood threshold within a group of gauges. Evidence for significant trends varied between groups of gauges that were defined by catchment size, location, climate, flood threshold and period of record, indicating that generalizations about flood trends across large domains or a diversity of catchment types are ungrounded. Overall, the number of significant trends in major-flood occurrence across North America and Europe was approximately the number expected due to chance alone. Changes over time in the occurrence of major floods were dominated by multidecadal variability rather than by long-term trends. There were more than three times as many significant relationships between major-flood occurrence and the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation than significant long-term trends.

Outbreaks of Illness Associated with Recreational Water, United States

 Michele C. Hlavsa, MPH1; Virginia A. Roberts, MSPH1; Amy M. Kahler, MS1; Elizabeth D. Hilborn, DVM2; Taryn R. Mecher, MPH1,3; Michael J. Beach, PhD1; Timothy J. Wade, PhD2; Jonathan S. Yoder, MPH1 (Author affiliations at end of text) Outbreaks of Illness Associated with Recreational Water — United States, 2011–2012  MMWR, June 26, 2015, Vol. 64,  No. 24, page 668

Summary: What is already known on this topic? Treated and untreated recreational water–associated outbreaks occur throughout the United States and their incidence has been increasing in recent years. CDC collects data on waterborne outbreaks electronically submitted by the 50 states, the District of Columbia, U.S. territories, and Freely Associated States to CDC’s Waterborne Disease and Outbreak Surveillance System via the National Outbreak Reporting System.

What is added by this report? For 2011–2012, a total of 90 recreational water–associated outbreaks were reported to CDC, resulting in at least 1,788 cases, 95 hospitalizations, and one death. Cryptosporidium caused over half of the outbreaks associated with treated recreational water venues (e.g., pools). Escherichia coli O157:H7 and O111 caused one third of outbreaks associated with untreated recreational water (e.g., lakes).

What are the implications for public health practice? Guidance, such as the Model Aquatic Health Code (MAHC), to prevent and control recreational water–associated outbreaks can be optimized when informed by national outbreak and laboratory (e.g., molecular typing of Cryptosporidium) data.

Enterovirus Outbreak Linked to Illegal Alien Children?

It is simply not possible for CDC to say that there is no link between disease transmission and illegal alien children. This does not necessarily mean that a link exists in each case. But enteroviruses are highly transmissible and person-to-person transmission should not be a surprise. For CDC to imply that it has not or cannot happen is simply spin.

“A disease that was once rare in the U.S. is killing Americans, and its rise coincides with the tidal wave of unaccompanied minor children arriving from Latin America under our de facto open-border policy.” click here