Tag Archives: water storage

California Snow is Melting: Save Our Precious Water!

“Oroville Dam’s spillway was forced to reopen at maximum flow as over 50,000 cubic feet per second of water careened into the lake and weather scientists warned of an impending 7 to 10-day heatwave that could cause flooding from an accelerated snowmelt.” click here

Bacterial Diversity During Reservoir Thermal Stratification

Zhang HH, Chen SN, Huang TL, Ma WX, Xu JL, Sun X. Vertical Distribution of Bacterial Community Diversity and Water Quality during the Reservoir Thermal Stratification. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2015 Jun 17;12(6):6933-45. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120606933.

Reservoir thermal stratification drives the water temperature and dissolved oxygen gradient, however, the characteristic of vertical water microbial community during thermal stratification is so far poorly understood. In this work, water bacterial community diversity was determined using the Illumina Miseq sequencing technique. The results showed that epilimnion, metalimnion and hypolimnion were formed steadily in the JINPEN drinking water reservoir. Water temperature decreased steadily from the surface (23.11 °C) to the bottom (9.17 °C). Total nitrogen ranged from 1.07 to 2.06 mg/L and nitrate nitrogen ranged from 0.8 to 1.84 mg/L. The dissolved oxygen concentration decreased sharply below 50 m, and reached zero at 65 m. The Miseq sequencing revealed a total of 4127 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with 97% similarity, which were affiliated with 15 phyla including Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Armatimonadetes, Bacteroidetes, Caldiserica, Chlamydiae, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Proteobacteria, and Verrucomicrobia. The highest Shannon diversity was 4.41 in 45 m, and the highest Chao 1 diversity was 506 in 5 m. Rhodobacter dominated in 55 m (23.24%) and 65 m (12.58%). Prosthecobacter dominated from 0.5 to 50 m. The heat map profile and redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated significant difference in vertical water bacterial community composition in the reservoir. Meanwhile, water quality properties including dissolved oxygen, conductivity, nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen have a dramatic influence on vertical distribution of bacterial communities.

Goodland (Indiana) water tower collapses

The town’s 50-year-old water tower collapsed Nov. 8, 2011. Of course, the typical response is to go to government for help. But this simply reinforces the fact that a healthy, robust economy is a pre-requisite to a sustainable water system…..not government handouts….click here for news article.

$1 Billion price tag for Palm Beach County (FL) reservoir

This will be an expensive water project…..since it is Palm Beach County, I suspect there is a large alottment in this estimate for the slush fund that will be need to grease the palms necessary to get this project completed, given their reputation for past practices….. Click here….


Thailand water reservoir levels now higher than 2011…

With the rainy season starting in May, the current high water levels in the country’s water storage reservoirs have many worried about future flooding…..click here….. 

Hyderabad, India reservoirs are easily accessible….

This article (click here) draws attention to security at the Hyderabad Mir Alam Tank, filter tank, and mini-reservoirs.

From the Hyderabad Advisor (click here):

“Mir Alam Tank is a man made lake located in the city of Hyderabad, India. It’s very close to Nehru Zoological Park, infact Mir Alam Tank is a part of Zoo Park. Mir Alam Tank is one of the five largest water bodies in Hyderabad which was the primary source of drinking water & agricultural water for Hyderabad people for 125 years, but ever since Osman Sagar and Himayat Sagar were built, it lost it history since its water is now unfit for human and animal consumption.”

“Mir Alam Tank was constructed by Mir Alam Bahadur the Prime Minister of Hyderabad state during the rule of Mir Akbar Ali Khan Sikander Jah Asif Jah III, the third Nizam king. Mir Alam Tank is in operation since 1806. It’s a great to watch engineering construction done by French unknown engineer comprising 21 semicircular arches thus making a total area of one mile.”

Water from this reservoir (“tank”) is filtered and made potable before distribution to customers, although some water quality complaints have occurred in the past (click here).


Atieli et al 2011: Assessment of water storage, treatment and use in the semi arid Kimana area, Oloitokitok district, Kenya.

H. Atieli, J.H. Magara, S. Bibi, K. Huber, A. Riner, M. Steeves, and A. Whilhelm. Assessment of water storage, treatment and use in the semi arid Kimana area, Oloitokitok district, Kenya. East Afr J Public Health. 2010 Dec;7(4):331-7.

Moi University, P.O Box 4606, Eldoret, Kenya.

Objectives: This study sought to identify the methods and associations of water storage, treatment and use among residents in the Kimana Fenced Area, Oloitokitok, Kenya for comparison with current best practices in order to develop recommendations to improve water sanitation issues in this area.

Methods: In a cross-sectional study design, 330 households were randomly selected and interviewed on water storage, treatment, and use practices.

Results: Eighty two percent of observed containers met CDC guidelines for improved water storage containers. Fifty seven percent of survey respondents reported not treating their drinking water, of which 49% indicated that they believed the water was already clean. Logistic regression showed that people who believed their water was unsafe were twice more likely to treat their water than those who perceived their water to be somewhat safe (p = 0.058). Those living outside the furrows were 56% less likely to treat their water in the home compared to those living along the furrow (p = 0.023). Respondents with a pastoral lifestyle were 69% less likely to treat their water than those with a non-pastoral lifestyle (p = .009). In terms of tribe, the largest treatment disparity was noted amongst the Maasai, with only 37.7% reporting any form of treatment.

Conclusion: Tribe, pastoral lifestyle, proximity to the furrow and socio-economic status were found to contribute to water storage method and treatment within the Kimana fence. It is critical that these factors be addressed in future water storage and treatment interventions in this area.

Click here to obtain the full text (fee).