Di M, Liu X, Wang W, Wang J. Manuscript prepared for submission to environmental toxicology and pharmacology pollution in drinking water source areas: Microplastics in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, China. Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 2018 Dec 17;65:82-89. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2018.12.009.
As the source of water for the South-to-North Water Diversion Project of China, the water quality of the Danjiangkou Reservoir (DJKR) is related to the safety of drinking water for billions of residents. Consequently, microplastics in surface water and sediment samples of the DJKR were investigated in this study. Microplastics were observed in all water and sediment samples with abundances varying from 467 to 15,017 n/m3 and 15 to 40 n/kg wet weight, respectively. Microplastics were rich in colour and dominated by fibrous items. Small-sized particles (< 2 mm) were more frequently observed than other sizes. Analysis by micro-Raman spectroscopy showed that polypropylene was the major polymer type. These systematic results demonstrated that the DJKR is suffering from the pollution of microplastics, which should be paid more attention based on its potential threat to the aquatic organisms and residents impacted by the drinking water source pollution.
Dudarev AA. Public Health Practice Report: water supply and sanitation in Chukotka and Yakutia, Russian Arctic. International Journal Of Circumpolar Health 2018 Dec; Vol. 77 (1), pp. 1423826.
Information from 2013-2015 have been analysed on water accessibility, types of water service to households, use of water pretreatment, availability of sewerage, use of sewage treatment in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug and Yakutia Republic, based on evaluation information accessible in open sources, such as regional statistics and sanitary-epidemiologic reports. The main causes of the poor state of water supply and sanitation in the study regions include: very limited access to in-home running water (one-quarter of settlements in Chukotka and half of settlements in Yakutia have no regular water supply) and lack of centralised sewerage (78% and 94% of settlements correspondingly have no sewerage); lack of water pretreatment and sewage treatment, outdated technologies and systems; serious deterioration of facilities and networks, frequent accidents; secondary pollution of drinking water. Lack of open objective information on Russian Arctic water supply and sanitation in the materials of the regional and federal statistics hampers the assessment of the real state of affairs. The situation for water and sanitation supply in these Russian Arctic regions remains steadily unfavourable. A comprehensive intervention from national and regional governmental levels is urgently needed.
Tao Wang, Shuming Liu, Xuepeng Qian, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Sébastien M.R. Dente, Seiji Hashimoto, Jun Nakajima. Assessment of the municipal water cycle in China. Science of The Total Environment Volumes 607–608, 31 December 2017, Pages 761-770.
Water produced from municipal utilities accounts for nearly 10% of the sum water demand in China. The municipal water cycle that integrates processes of urban water supply, water use, sewage treatment, and water reclamation has been assessed for 655 cities across nine drainage areas in mainland China in 2012. These cities in total extracted 55 km3 raw water for municipal use from surface waterbodies and ground aquifers, approximate to the countrywide freshwater extraction of Russia or Italy. After purification and transmission, 45 km3 water was distributed to industrial, service, and domestic users. 36 km3 of post-use sewage was collected and environmentally safely treated; merely 3.2 km3 of the treated water was reclaimed. Driven by increasing urbanization, the municipal water demand in cities of China may grow 70% by 2030. The Hai River and the Huai River basins, which harbor 137 cities and occupy a majority of the densely populated North China Plain, are most exposed to physical water scarcity. The municipal water abstraction in these cities can remain constant by promoting demand-side and process conservation in the next two decades. Interbasin transfer and unconventional sources will provide municipal water double than the cities’ need. Whereas the urban water security can be technically enhanced, the challenges are to better improve water use efficiency and mitigate economic and environmental costs of the municipal system.
Okullo JO, Moturi WN, Ogendi GM. Open Defaecation and Its Effects on the Bacteriological Quality of Drinking Water Sources in Isiolo County, Kenya. Environ Health Insights. 2017 Oct 9;11:1178630217735539. doi: 10.1177/1178630217735539.
BACKGROUND INFORMATION: The post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals for sanitation call for universal access to adequate and equitable sanitation and an end to open defaecation by 2030. In Isiolo County, a semi-arid region lying in the northern part of Kenya, poor sanitation and water shortage remain a major problem facing the rural communities.
OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of the study was to assess the relationship between sanitation practices and the bacteriological quality of drinking water sources. The study also assessed the risk factors contributing to open defaecation in the rural environments of the study area.
METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 150 households was conducted to assess the faecal disposal practices in open defaecation free (ODF) and open defaecation not free (ODNF) areas. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological analyses were conducted for selected community water sources to identify faecal pollution sources, contamination pathways, and contributory factors. Analysis of data was performed using SPSS (descriptive and inferential statistics at α = .05 level of significance).
RESULTS: Open defaecation habit was reported in 51% of the study households in ODNF villages and in 17% households in ODF villages. Higher mean colony counts were recorded for water samples from ODNF areas 2.0, 7.8, 5.3, and 7.0 (×103) colony-forming units (CFUs)/100 mL compared with those of ODF 1.8, 6.4, 3.5, and 6.1 (×103) areas for Escherichia coli, faecal streptococci, Salmonella typhi, and total coliform, respectively. Correlation tests revealed a significant relationship between sanitary surveys and contamination of water sources (P = .002).
CONCLUSIONS: The water sources exhibited high levels of contamination with microbial pathogens attributed to poor sanitation. Practising safe faecal disposal in particular is recommended as this will considerably reverse the situation and thus lead to improved human health.
Good KD, Vanbriesen JM. Power plant bromide discharges and downstream drinking water systems in Pennsylvania. Environmental science and technology. 2017 Sep 25. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b03003.
Coal-fired power plants operating wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) have recently been implicated in increasing bromide levels in drinking water sources, which affect formation of disinfection by-products. Bromide was not included as a regulated constituent in the recent steam electric effluent limitations guidelines and standards (ELGs) since the U.S. EPA analysis suggested few drinking water facilities would be affected by bromide discharges from power plants. The present analysis uses a watershed approach to identify Pennsylvania drinking water intakes downstream of wet FGD discharges and considers the population served by these systems, providing context for the potential extent of the effects of coal-fired power plant discharges on downstream drinking water plants and consumers of publicly-supplied drinking water. Twenty-two (22) public drinking water systems serving 2.5 million people were identified as being downstream of at least one wet FGD discharge. During mean August flow conditions in receiving rivers, the median bromide concentration contributions at intake locations ranged from 5.2 to 62 µg/L for the Base scenario (including only natural bromide in coal) and 16 to 190 µg/L for the Bromide Addition scenario (natural plus added bromide for mercury control); ranges depend on bromide loads and receiving stream dilution capacity.
Mercer N, Hanrahan M. Straight from the heavens into your bucket”: domestic rainwater harvesting as a measure to improve water security in a subarctic indigenous community. International journal of circumpolar health. 2017;76(1):1312223. doi: 10.1080/22423982.2017.1312223
BACKGROUND: Black Tickle-Domino is an extremely water-insecure remote Inuit community in the Canadian subarctic that lacks piped-water. Drinking water consumption in the community is less than a third of the Canadian national average. Water insecurity in the community contributes to adverse health, economic, and social effects and requires urgent action.
OBJECTIVES: To test the ability of domestic rainwater harvesting (DRWH) for the first time in the subarctic with the goal of improving water access and use in the community.
DESIGN: This project utilised quantitative weekly reporting of water collection and use, as well as focus group discussions. DRWH units were installed at seven water-insecure households chosen by the local government. Results were measured over a 6-week period in 2016.
RESULTS: Participants harvested 19.07 gallons of rainwater per week. General purpose water consumption increased by 17% and water retrieval efforts declined by 40.92%. Households saved $12.70 CDN per week. Participants reported perceived improvements to psychological health. Because no potable water was collected, drinking water consumption did not increase. The study identified additional water-insecurity impacts.
CONCLUSION: DRWH cannot supply drinking water without proper treatment and filtration; however, it can be a partial remedy to water insecurity in the subarctic. DRWH is appropriately scaled, inexpensive, and participants identified several significant benefits.